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Quality and product safety in Sub Saharan Africa – challenges and opportunities. By Ivar Foss, Ivar Foss Quality Management, Norway E-mail: [email protected] My background. 13 years in Det norske Veritas, 5 years as Executive Vice President

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quality and product safety in sub saharan africa challenges and opportunities

Quality and product safety in Sub Saharan Africa – challenges and opportunities

By Ivar Foss, Ivar Foss Quality Management, Norway

E-mail: [email protected]

my background
My background
  • 13 years in Det norske Veritas, 5 years as Executive Vice President
  • Ivar Foss Quality Management established in 1987
  • 11 years of consulting in CEEC
  • Last 3 years: Consulting on trade development in Africa. Clients: Sida, Norad, UNIDO, ISO etc.
  • Lived in Kenya for two years
the sida norad strategy project
The Sida/Norad strategy project

The main report is available from Sida, see www.sida.se

african trade initiatives
African trade initiatives

African Union:

  • The African Common Market

NEPAD Market Access Initiative (2001):

  • Points out the need to increase value added in agro-processing and mineral beneficiation
  • Promotes development of the private sector
  • Give specific recommendations for removal of Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
  • Sets objectives for agriculture, including food security, but is not specific with regard to Sanitary and phytosanitary Measures (SPS)
slide5

Barcelona

ECOWAS

ECOWAS and UEMOA

SADC

COMESA

Barcelonaand COMESA

SADC and COMESA

Trade

areas

CapeVerde

Sey-chelles

Como-ros

Mauri-tius

vegetable export from kenya
Vegetable export from Kenya

HCDA packing and storage facility at Nairobi Airport

testing laboratories
Testing laboratories

Kenya Bureau of Standards, Nairobi

new solutions in metrology
New solutions in metrology

Mobile calibration laboratory for Mozambique

objectives in three dimensions
Objectives in three dimensions
  • Each country has to protect its own society against hazardous and sub-standard products, imported as well as domestically produced
  • Exporters have to comply with the increas-ingly demanding requirements in target markets
  • Complying to requirements is not enough – the products must also be attractive in the target markets. Supply side development is required
general and targeted strategies

Export-focussedtailor madequaltiyinfrastructure

DomesticfocussedgeneralTBT/SPS

structure

General and Targeted Strategies

Awareness building

Engagement and basic training

creating awareness why is it so important
Creating awareness -why is it so important?

No change will take place until influential stakeholders are convinced of the need for change!

two sets of strategies
Defensive strategies

Regulate only when risks are significant

Limit national legisla-tion; make use of international standards

Simplify conformity assessment procedures

Develop the quality infrastructure

Improve transparency

Offensive strategies

Collect info. on Technical Regulations, standards and conformtiy assessment in target markets

Map market requirements

Develop a tailormade conformity assessment infrastructure

Develop quality as a competitive strategy

Two sets of strategies
ensure safe products on domestic markets

Tariffsand quotas

Domestic suppliers

Border control

Ensure safe products on domestic markets
  • Laws and regulations
  • Standards
  • - Market surveillance

Imports

Trade andindustrypolicy

the food chain approach for the sps area
The food chain approach for the SPS area

Planthealth

Animalhealth

Foodsafety

Multidisciplinary approach

Codex

OIE

IPPC

  • Scientific risk assessment
  • HACCP
the sps infrastructure
The SPS infrastructure
  • Most African countries have not adopted the food chain approach. Present legislation is outdated
  • National SPS policies are absent
  • Responsibilities and resouces are scatted on many ministries (up to 6)
  • The infrastructure for testing and enforcement is weak
  • The risk analysis process is introduced only in special cases, typically for export
  • Most countries are members of Codex, OIE and IPPC
standardisation in africa
Standardisation in Africa
  • 14 full members and 16 associates or corre-sponding members of ISO
  • ~ 50 countries are members of Codex and OIE
  • 66 % of NSBs are autonomous government bodies
  • The NSBs have published few standards (< 150)
  • The distinction between standards and regulations is blurred
  • Participation in international standards development is low
traditional and new approach to standards

TheReference to Standards Principle:

Products complyingwith the referenced standards are pre- sumed to comply with legal require-ments

Legal act

Legal act

Government

Technical regulations

RegulationsMandatorystandards

Government

Voluntarystandards

NSB

Traditionalapproach

Referenceto standards

Traditional and new approach to standards
the international model for regulatory harmonisation

National legislation

Country A

Country B

Country C

Country D

Regional andsectoral structure

Evidence of conformity

International(or other agreed)standards

The international model for regulatory harmonisation

Commonregulatoryobjectives

harmonisation of standards

ISO etc.

ARSO (African Regional Organisation for Standardisation

Regional organisation

NSB

NSB

NSB

Harmonisation of standards
recommended strategy for african standardisation
Recommended strategy for African standardisation
  • Introduce the Reference to Standards Principle and The International Model in legislation in order to promote regional harmonisation
  • Accept international standards for industrial products
  • Influence Codex, OIE and IPPC to take African concerns into accounts
  • Establish regional African scientific committees to support participation in international standardisation
  • Develop African regional standards for products and conditions that are specific to Africa
regional development of con formity assessment services
Regional development of con-formity assessment services
  • Calibration services (industrial and legal metrology, proficiency testing)
  • Reference laboratories (chemistry and microbiology for food safety, animal and plant health)
  • Management system certification: Quality, environment, HACCP
  • Accreditation
  • Scientifically based risk assessment
the just in time export strategy

Tariffs

and quota

Quality

Price

Availability

Market requirements

TBT 1)

The target

market

SPS

SPS 1)

Competitive products

Recognised documentationof compliance

TBT

1) and other non-tariff barrier

TechnicalRegulations

Standards

Conformity

assessment

MRAs

The Just-in-Time Export Strategy

Supplier.Produceand sell

quality as a competitive strategy

Excellence

Total quality management

Quality assurance/management

Statistical quality control

Inspection

Quality as a competitive strategy

Developmentstage

1920

1960

2000

the important role of the nsb
The important role of the NSB

Standardisation:

  • Industrial as well as food safety, animal and plant health
  • Arm length distance, independence from government
  • Establish a good committee structure

Other services:

  • Information centre, incl. WTO enquiry point
  • Laboratory testing
  • Certification services
  • Calibration services, possibly metrology institute
  • Training

A national focal point for quality and product safety

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Africa faces very large and multi-facetted challenges in the areas of quality and product safety
  • National policies should guide development priorities
  • Targeted and specific strategies are required in order to succeed
  • Regional cooperation is important for rapid development
  • Export development must be accompanied by the relevant conformity assessment structure
  • Both national and regional developments require technical assistence
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