Introduction. ?Nearly 65% of the total electric energy produced in the USA is consumed by electric motors." - R. Krishnan, ?Electric Motor Drives". Some Applications of Electric Drives . Electric PropulsionPumps, fans, compressorsPlant automationFlexible manufacturing systemsSpindles and servosAppliances and power toolsCement kilnsPaper and pulp mills; textile millsAutomotive applicationsConveyors, elevators, escalators, lifts.
1. ECE 8830 - Electric Drives
“Nearly 65% of the total electric energy produced in the USA is consumed by electric motors.”
- R. Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives”
3. Some Applications of Electric Drives Electric Propulsion
Pumps, fans, compressors
Flexible manufacturing systems
Spindles and servos
Appliances and power tools
Paper and pulp mills; textile mills
Conveyors, elevators, escalators, lifts
4. Energy/Cost Savings System efficiency can be increased from 15% to 27% by introducing variable-speed drive operation in place of constant-speed operation.
US energy bill would be reduced by an estimated $90 billion!
For a large pump variable-speed drive, payback period ~ 3-5 years whereas operating life is ~ 20 years.
5. Power Devices Power Diode
Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO)
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
MOS Controlled Thyristor (MCT)
6. Categories of Switches There are three categories of switches:
Diodes (rectifiers) - on/off determined by the power circuit.
Thyristors (SCRs, Triacs) - latched on by a control signal but turned off by the power circuit.
Controllable Switches (BJTs, MOSFETs, GTOs, IGBTs, MCTs) - turned on and off by control signals.
7. Power Diodes Circuit Symbol:
8. Diode Switching Characteristics Reverse Forward
9. Thyristors Circuit Symbol:
10. Thyristor Switching Characteristics
11. Controllable Switches These devices do not depend on power
reversal to go off - they may be triggered off.
In many applications, the switch current
flows through a series inductance.
12. Controllable Switches (cont’d) Switching Waveforms
13. Power Device Losses Conduction energy loss, Esc=ISVON[ton+tD(off)-tC(on)-tD(on)]
Sum of turn-on and turn-off energy loss, Est ?0.5VSIS[tc(on)+tc(off)]
Total power loss,
where fs is switching frequency
14. Transistor Switches BJTs, Monolithic Darlingtons (MDs) and MOSFETs
MOSFETs are easier to parallel than BJTs because of their positive temperature coefficient of on-state resistance (although paralleling MOSFETs is an art more than a science).
15. Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) GTOs can be turned off
by applying a negative
16. Switching Waveforms for GTOs
17. GTOs (cont’d) GTOs are sensitive to dv/dt. Therefore, snubber circuits are used to minimize dv/dt and di/dt.
GTOs are available to handle 1000’s of V,A up to 10kHz.
18. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) Circuit Symbol:
High impedance gate (similar to MOSFETs)
Von ~ 2V in a 1000V device !
Voltage ratings up to 2 kV, 100’s of A, ~ 1?sec. switching time.
19. MOS Controlled Thyristors (MCTs) Circuit Symbols:
Current-voltage characteristics similar to GTOs
Two main advantages over GTOs:
1) Smaller turn-off current
2) Faster switching speeds (~ ?sec)
Voltage ratings up to 1500V;
current ratings ~ few hundred Amps
20. Motor Drive Components A modern variable-speed drive has four components:
(i) Electric machines - ac or dc
(ii) Power converter - rectifiers,choppers,
inverters, and cycloconverters
(iii) Controllers -matching the motor and
power converter to meet the load
21. Motor Drive Schematic
22. Subdisciplines of Electrical Engg. Semiconductor Devices
Analog and Digital Electronics
23. Electric Machines “An engineer designing a high-performance drive system must have intimate knowledge about machine performance.”
- Bimal K. Bose, “Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives”
24. Electric Machines (cont’d) DC Machines - shunt, series, compound, separately excited dc motors and switched reluctance machines
AC Machines - Induction, wound rotor synchronous, permanent magnet synchronous, synchronous reluctance, and switched reluctance machines.
Special Machines - switched reluctance machines
25. Electric Machines (cont’d) All of the above machines are commercially available in fractional kW to MW ranges except permanent-magnet, synchronous, synchronous reluctance, and switched reluctance which are available up to 150 kW level.
26. Selection Criteria for Electric Machines Cost
Power density, volume of motor
Ripple, cogging torques
Peak torque capability
27. Power Converters Controlled Rectifiers; fed from single-phase or three-phase ac mains supply and provide dc output for motor drive.
Inverters; convert dc output of battery or rectified ac source to provide variable ac voltages and currents at desired frequency and phase.
Cycloconverters; Directly convert fixed frequency ac voltage/current to variable voltage/current of variable frequency for driving ac machines.
28. Controllers Controllers embody the control laws governing the load and motor characteristics and their interaction.
29. Load The motor drives a load that has a characteristic torque vs. speed requirement.
In general, load torque is a function of speed and can be written as:
Tl ? ?mx
x=1 for frictional systems (e.g. feed drives)
x=2 for fans and pumps