ECE 8830 - Electric Drives

ECE 8830 - Electric Drives PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction. ?Nearly 65% of the total electric energy produced in the USA is consumed by electric motors." - R. Krishnan, ?Electric Motor Drives". Some Applications of Electric Drives . Electric PropulsionPumps, fans, compressorsPlant automationFlexible manufacturing systemsSpindles and servosAppliances and power toolsCement kilnsPaper and pulp mills; textile millsAutomotive applicationsConveyors, elevators, escalators, lifts.

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ECE 8830 - Electric Drives

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1. ECE 8830 - Electric Drives

2. Introduction “Nearly 65% of the total electric energy produced in the USA is consumed by electric motors.” - R. Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives”

3. Some Applications of Electric Drives Electric Propulsion Pumps, fans, compressors Plant automation Flexible manufacturing systems Spindles and servos Appliances and power tools Cement kilns Paper and pulp mills; textile mills Automotive applications Conveyors, elevators, escalators, lifts

4. Energy/Cost Savings System efficiency can be increased from 15% to 27% by introducing variable-speed drive operation in place of constant-speed operation. US energy bill would be reduced by an estimated $90 billion! For a large pump variable-speed drive, payback period ~ 3-5 years whereas operating life is ~ 20 years.

5. Power Devices Power Diode Power BJT SCR/Thyristor Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO) Power MOSFET Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) MOS Controlled Thyristor (MCT)

6. Categories of Switches There are three categories of switches: Diodes (rectifiers) - on/off determined by the power circuit. Thyristors (SCRs, Triacs) - latched on by a control signal but turned off by the power circuit. Controllable Switches (BJTs, MOSFETs, GTOs, IGBTs, MCTs) - turned on and off by control signals.

7. Power Diodes Circuit Symbol: Current-Voltage Characteristics:

8. Diode Switching Characteristics Reverse Forward Forward Reverse

9. Thyristors Circuit Symbol: Current-Voltage Characteristics:

10. Thyristor Switching Characteristics

11. Controllable Switches These devices do not depend on power reversal to go off - they may be triggered off. In many applications, the switch current flows through a series inductance. Idealized Circuit

12. Controllable Switches (cont’d) Switching Waveforms

13. Power Device Losses Conduction energy loss, Esc=ISVON[ton+tD(off)-tC(on)-tD(on)] Sum of turn-on and turn-off energy loss, Est ?0.5VSIS[tc(on)+tc(off)] Total power loss, where fs is switching frequency

14. Transistor Switches BJTs, Monolithic Darlingtons (MDs) and MOSFETs MOSFETs are easier to parallel than BJTs because of their positive temperature coefficient of on-state resistance (although paralleling MOSFETs is an art more than a science).

15. Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) GTOs can be turned off by applying a negative gate current.

16. Switching Waveforms for GTOs

17. GTOs (cont’d) GTOs are sensitive to dv/dt. Therefore, snubber circuits are used to minimize dv/dt and di/dt. GTOs are available to handle 1000’s of V,A up to 10kHz.

18. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) Circuit Symbol: Characteristics: High impedance gate (similar to MOSFETs) Von ~ 2V in a 1000V device ! Voltage ratings up to 2 kV, 100’s of A, ~ 1?sec. switching time.

19. MOS Controlled Thyristors (MCTs) Circuit Symbols: Characteristics: Current-voltage characteristics similar to GTOs Two main advantages over GTOs: 1) Smaller turn-off current 2) Faster switching speeds (~ ?sec) Voltage ratings up to 1500V; current ratings ~ few hundred Amps

20. Motor Drive Components A modern variable-speed drive has four components: (i) Electric machines - ac or dc (ii) Power converter - rectifiers,choppers, inverters, and cycloconverters (iii) Controllers -matching the motor and power converter to meet the load requirements (iv) Load

21. Motor Drive Schematic

22. Subdisciplines of Electrical Engg. Semiconductor Devices Magnetic Materials Power Electronics Control Systems Electromagnetics Sensors Analog and Digital Electronics Signal Processing

23. Electric Machines “An engineer designing a high-performance drive system must have intimate knowledge about machine performance.” - Bimal K. Bose, “Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives”

24. Electric Machines (cont’d) DC Machines - shunt, series, compound, separately excited dc motors and switched reluctance machines AC Machines - Induction, wound rotor synchronous, permanent magnet synchronous, synchronous reluctance, and switched reluctance machines. Special Machines - switched reluctance machines

25. Electric Machines (cont’d) All of the above machines are commercially available in fractional kW to MW ranges except permanent-magnet, synchronous, synchronous reluctance, and switched reluctance which are available up to 150 kW level.

26. Selection Criteria for Electric Machines Cost Thermal Capacity Efficiency Torque-speed profile Acceleration Power density, volume of motor Ripple, cogging torques Peak torque capability

27. Power Converters Controlled Rectifiers; fed from single-phase or three-phase ac mains supply and provide dc output for motor drive. Inverters; convert dc output of battery or rectified ac source to provide variable ac voltages and currents at desired frequency and phase. Cycloconverters; Directly convert fixed frequency ac voltage/current to variable voltage/current of variable frequency for driving ac machines.

28. Controllers Controllers embody the control laws governing the load and motor characteristics and their interaction. Controller

29. Load The motor drives a load that has a characteristic torque vs. speed requirement. In general, load torque is a function of speed and can be written as: Tl ? ?mx x=1 for frictional systems (e.g. feed drives) x=2 for fans and pumps

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