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Mobile Broadband Wireless Access. Dr. Muid Mufti 20 December 2006. History of Wireless. First Ever Wireless Communication ? First Mobile Radio Telephone 1924 Phenomenal growth with the turn of the century. Global. Satellite. Suburban. Urban. In-Building. Picocell. Microcell.

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Mobile Broadband Wireless Access

Dr. Muid Mufti

20 December 2006


History of Wireless

  • First Ever Wireless Communication ?

  • First Mobile Radio Telephone1924

  • Phenomenal growth with the turn of the century


Global

Satellite

Suburban

Urban

In-Building

Picocell

Microcell

Macrocell

Basic Terminal

PDA Terminal

Audio/Visual Terminal

The Wireless Experience


Advantages of Wireless

  • Low cost

  • Low maintenance

  • Quick deployment

  • Reduced sunk cost

  • Mobility


Disadvantages of Wireless

  • Non secure

  • Environmentally vulnerable

  • Frequency reuse issues


Ubiquitous Networks

  • MBWA based product

    • Cell phone TV

    • Streaming Multimedia

    • Video on Demand

  • MBWA based Services

    • Mobile medical aid

    • Train entertainment systems

    • Surveillance

  • Strategic MBWA business


Defining Broadband

  • High dates rates ?

  • FCC definition of broadband: Connections with speed exceeding 200 Kb/s in at least one direction

  • PTA definition of broadband: High speed, ‘always on’ Internet connection. Speed of connection ranging from 128 Kbps to 2 Mbps or higher.

  • Refers to the ability of the user to view content across the internet that includes large files, such as video, audio, multimedia and 3D graphics

  • QoS Support


Mobile vs. Wireless

Wireless

Mobile


Mobility

  • Range of mobility

    • Geographic range

    • Across networks

    • IP mobility

  • Speed of mobility

    • Personal mobility

    • Vehicular mobility

  • Frequency of mobility

    • Mobility Overhead


MBWA

  • Be able to support broadband data rates with given QoS with mobility

  • Mobility speed

    • Personal mobility

    • 100+ km/h – high speed trains, cars, buses etc.


QoS – Conversational / Real-time Services


QoS - Interactive Services


QoS - Streaming Services


Mobile Broadband Development Streams

  • UMTS-TDD (WCDMA-TDD)

  • FDD W-CDMA

  • TD-SCDMA

  • 1x EVDO

  • WiMAX (802.16e)

  • 802.20 (MobileFi)


Global Wireless Data Standards

WUSB

802.16

WiMax

802.15

Zigbee

Data Rates

802.11

Wifi

802.20

MobileFi

Bluetooth

UMTS

GPRS

Range


Global Wireless Data Standards


Basic Modulation Schemes


UMTS-TDD

  • Up to 12Mbps

  • More than 3 times higher than any other commercial mobile platform.

  • True N=1 frequency reuse

    • Network operator can deploy a network with multiple towers using only one RF Channel

  • 5 MHz RF channel for a 3.84 Mcps system

  • 10 MHz channel for a 7.68 Mcps system.

  • Mobility up to 120 km/hr within the network footprint

  • Tower-to-tower handoff roaming

  • Network-to-network roaming


FDD W-CDMA

  • Frequency band:1920 MHz -1980 MHz and 2110 MHz - 2170 MHz (Frequency Division Duplex)

  • Minimum frequency band required: ~ 2x5MHz

  • Frequency re-use: 1

  • Carrier Spacing: 4.4MHz - 5.2 MHz

  • Maximum number of (voice) channels on 2x5MHz: ~196 (spreading factor 256 UL, AMR 7.95kbps) / ~98 (spreading factor 128 UL, AMR 12.2kbps)

  • Voice coding: AMR codecs (4.75 kHz - 12.2 kHz, GSM EFR=12.2 kHz) and SID (1.8 kHz)

  • Channel coding: Convolutional coding, Turbo code for high rate data

  • Duplexer needed (190MHz separation), Asymmetric connection supported

  • Tx/Rx isolation: MS: 55dB, BS: 80dB

  • Receiver: Rake

  • Receiver sensitivity: Node B: -121dBm, Mobile -117dBm at BER of 10-3

  • Data type: Packet and circuit switch

  • Modulation: QPSK

  • Pulse shaping: Root raised cosine, roll-off = 0.22

  • Chip rate: 3.84 Mcps


FDD W-CDMA

  • Channel raster: 200 kHz

  • Maximum user data rate (Offered): 384 kbps (year 2002), higher rates ( ~ 2 Mbps) in the near future. HSPDA will offer data speeds up to 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO systems)

  • Channel bit rate: 5.76Mbps

  • Frame length: 10ms (38400 chips)

  • Number of slots / frame: 15

  • Number of chips / slot: 2560 chips

  • Handovers: Soft, Softer, (interfrequency: Hard)

  • Power control period: Time slot = 1500 Hz rate

  • Power control step size: 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 dB (Variable)

  • Power control range: UL 80dB, DL 30dB

  • Mobile peak power: Power class 1: +33 dBm (+1dB/-3dB) = 2W; class 2 +27 dBm, class 3 +24 dBm, class 4 +21 dBm

  • Number of unique base station identification codes: 512 / frequency


TD-SCDMA

  • China Wireless Telecommunication Standards group (CWTS)

  • Approved by the ITU in 1999

  • Developed by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology and Siemens

  • Frequency band: 2010 MHz - 2025 MHz in China (WLL 1900 MHz - 1920 MHz)

  • Minimum frequency band required: 1.6MHz

  • Frequency re-use: 1 (or 3)

  • Chip rate: 1.28 Mcps

  • Frame length: 10ms

  • Number of slots: 7

  • Modulation: QPSK or 8-PSK


TD-SCDMA

  • Voice data rate: 8kbit/s

  • Circuit switched services: 12.2 kbits/s, 64 kbits/s, 144 kbits/s, 384 kbits/s, 2048 kbits/s

  • Packet data: 9.6kbits/s, 64kbits/s, 144kbits/s, 384kbits/s, 2048kbits/s

  • Receiver: Joint Detection, (mobile: Rake)

  • Power control period: 200 Hz

  • Number of slots / frame: 7

  • Frame length: 5ms

  • Multi carrier option

  • Handovers: Hard

  • Uplink synchronization


1x EVDO (CDMA 2000)

  • Qualcomm USA.

  • Frequency band: Any existing band.

  • Minimum frequency band required: 1x: 2x1.25MHz, 3x: 2x3.75

  • Chip rate: 1x: 1.2288, 3x: 3.6864 Mcps

  • Maximum user data rate: 1x: 144 kbps now, 307 kbps in the future 1xEV-DO: max 384 kbps - 2.4 Mbps, 1xEV-DV: 4.8 Mbps.

  • Frame length: 5ms, 10ms or 20ms

  • Power control rate: 800 Hz

  • Spreading factors: 4 ... 256 UL


Migration to 3G


IEEE 802.16e


802.16e

  • Mobile WirelessMAN

  • Approved by IEEE Feb 2006

  • NLOS with Antenna Diversity

  • FDD / TDD

  • Multiple Convergence layers

    • IP

    • Ethernet

    • ATM


Adaptive PHY

Burst-by-burst adaptivity not shown


WIMAX-802.16-2004


Adaptive Burst Profiles

  • Burst profile

    • Modulation and FEC

  • Dynamically assigned according to link conditions

    • Burst by burst, per subscriber station

    • Trade-off capacity vs. robustness in real time

  • Roughly doubled capacity for the same cell area

  • Burst profile for downlink broadcast channel is well-known

    • All other burst profiles could be configured “on the fly”

    • Subscriber station capabilities recognized at registration


Duplex Scheme Support

  • On downlink , SS is associated with a specific burst

  • On uplink , SS is allotted a variable length time slot for their transmissions

  • Time-Division Duplex (TDD)

    • Downlink & Uplink time share the same RF channel

    • Dynamic asymmetry

    • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)

  • Frequency-Division Duplex (FDD)

    • Downlink & Uplink on separate RF channels

    • Static asymmetry

    • Half-duplex SSs supported

      • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)


Duplex Scheme Support

  • On downlink , SS is associated with a specific burst

  • On uplink , SS is allotted a variable length time slot for their transmissions

  • Time-Division Duplex (TDD)

    • Downlink & Uplink time share the same RF channel

    • Dynamic asymmetry

    • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)

  • Frequency-Division Duplex (FDD)

    • Downlink & Uplink on separate RF channels

    • Static asymmetry

    • Half-duplex SSs supported

      • SS does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)


TDD Frame (10-66 GHz)

n PS = (Symbol Rate x Frame Length) / 4

Downlink Subframe

Uplink Subframe

Adaptive

PS 0

PS n-1

Frame j-2

Frame j - 1

Frame j

Frame j+1

Frame j+1


TDD Downlink Subframe

TDM Portion

Broadcast

Control

DUIC = 0

TDM

DUIC a

TDM

DUIC b

TDM

DUIC c

Preamble

Tx/Rx Transition Gap

Preamble

DL- MAP

UL-MAP

DIUC: Downlink Interval Usage Code


Burst FDD Framing

DOWNLINK

UPLINK

Frame

Broadcast

Half Duplex Terminal #1

Full Duplex Capable User

Half Duplex Terminal #2

Allows scheduling flexibility


FDD Downlink Subframe

TDM Portion

Broadcast

Control

DUIC = 0

TDM

DIUC a

TDM

DIUC b

TDM

DIUC c

Preamble

TDMA Portion

TDM

DIUC d

TDM

DIUC e

TDM

DIUC f

TDM

DIUC g

Preamble

Preamble

Preamble

Preamble

Burst Start Points

DL-MAP

UL-MAP

Preamble


Fragmentation

  • Partitioning a MAC SDU into fragments transported in multiple MAC PDUs

  • Each connection can be in only a single fragmentation state at any time

  • Contents of the fragmentation sub-header:

    • 2-bit Fragmentation Control (FC)

      • Unfragmented, Last fragment, First fragment, Continuing fragment

    • 3-bit Fragmentation Sequence Number (FSN)

      • required to detect missing continuing fragments

      • continuous counter across SDUs


Packing

  • The process of combining multiple MAC SDUs (or fragments thereof) into a single MAC PDU

  • On connections with variable length MAC SDUs

    • Packed PDU contains a sub-header for each packed SDU (or fragment thereof)

  • On connections with fixed length MAC SDUs

    • No packing sub-header needed

  • Packing and fragmentation can be combined

  • Can, in certain situations, save up to 10% of system bandwidth


Classes of Service

Characteristic of the Service Flow

  • Unsolicited Grant Services (UGS)

    • for constant bit-rate (CBR) or CBR-like service flows (SFs) such as T1/E1

  • Real-time Polling Services (rtPS)

    • for rt -VBR-like SFs such as MPEG video

  • Non-real-time Polling Services (nrtPS)

    • for nrt SFs with better than best effort service such as bandwidth-intensive file transfer

  • Best Effort (BE)

    • for best-effort traffic


UGS

  • No explicit bandwidth requests issued by SS

  • Prohibited from using any contention requests

  • No unicast request opportunity provided

  • May include a Grant Management (GM) sub-containing header containing

    • Slip indicator: indicates that there is an backlog in the buffer due to clock skew or loss of maps

    • Poll-me bit: indicates that the terminal needs to be polled (allows for not polling terminals with UGS-only services).


RTPS

  • Intended for rt-VBR-like service flows such as MPEG video

  • Prohibited from using any contention requests

  • Terminals polled frequently enough to meet the delay requirements of the SFs

  • Bandwidth requested with BW request messages (a special MAC PDU header)

  • May use Grant Management sub-header

    • new request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU


NRTPS

  • Intended for non-real-time service flows with better than best effort service

    • e.g. bandwidth-intensive file transfer

  • Works like rt-polling except that polls are issued less frequently

  • Allowed to use contention requests

  • May use Grant Management sub-header

    • new request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU


BE

  • Generic data

    • e.g. HTTP, SMTP, etc.

  • No QoS guarantees

  • Allowed to use contention requests

  • May use Grant Management sub-header

    • new request can be piggybacked with each transmitted PDU


Request/Grant Scheme

  • Self Correcting

    • No acknowledgement

    • All errors are handled in the same way, i.e., periodical aggregate requests

  • Bandwidth Requests are always per Connection

  • Grants are either per Connection (GPC) or per Subscriber Station (GPSS)

    • Grants (given as durations) are carried in the UL-MAP messages

    • SS needs to convert the time to amount of data using information about the UIUC


WIMAX Deployment


Aperto

  • 2.5 GHz, 3.3 GHz , 3.5 GHz, 5.3GHz , 5.8 GHz

  • Deployed/trialed by:

    • Iberbanda, Spain;

    • Enertel, Holland;

    • Sequelle Communications Alliance, USA


Alvarion

  • 3.5 GHz, 5.8 GHz, 2.5 GHz

  • Summerside Community Network, USA

  • Telekom Serbia, Israel

  • Axtel, Mexico


Nex-G

  • Target licensed exempt bands initially e.g. 5.8 GHz. Subsequently licensed bands e.g. 3.5 Ghz, 2.5 Ghz


Redline Communications

  • 3.5 GHz, 5.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz

  • Telabria, UK

  • I-Netlink Wireless, Canada;

  • Thirteen WNET/New York, USA


WiLAN

  • 2.4 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5.8GHz

  • Marathon Oil, USA

  • TM Net Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia


IEEE 802.20


802.20 (Mobile Fi)

  • Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)

  • Below 3.5 GHz bands

  • Optimized for IP-data transport

  • Peak data rates per user in excess of 1 Mbps

  • supports various vehicular mobility classes up to 250 Km/h

  • Range up to 20 Km

  • Extremely low latency at 20 milliseconds or less


802.20 (Mobile Fi)

  • The 802.20 interface seeks to boost real-time data transmission rates in wireless metropolitan area networks to speeds that rival DSL and cable connections

  • Cell sizes to commensurate with ubiquitous metropolitan

  • Targets spectral efficiencies, sustained user data rates

  • Numbers of active users significantly higher than achieved by existing mobile systems


802.20 (Mobile Fi)

  • Efficient packet-based air interface with high-speed downlink and uplink capabilities

  • It will enable telephony using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and activities needing rapid network response times, such as online gaming and financial transactions

  • The standard also will support other IP-centric applications, so the many native IP applications can be used without alteration.


Spectral Efficiencies


Design Criteria

  • Broad Market Potential

    • Broad sets of applicability.

    • Multiple vendors and numerous users.

    • Balanced costs

  • Compatibility

    • Conformance with 802 Overview and Architecture

    • Conformance with 802.1D (MAC Bridges) and 802.1F (VLAN Bridges)

    • Conformance with 802.1F and compatible managed object definitions

    • Identification of any variance in conformance

  • Coexistence.


Design Criteria

  • Distinct Identity

    • Substantially different from other IEEE 802 standards.

    • One unique solution per problem.

    • Easy for the document reader to select the relevant specification.

  • Technical Feasibility

    • Demonstrated system feasibility.

    • Proven technology, reasonable testing.

    • Confidence in reliability.

  • Economic Feasibility

    • Known cost factors, reliable data.

    • Reasonable cost for performance.

    • Consideration of installation costs


802.20 vs. 802.16e

  • 802.16e - 2 to 6 GHz licensed bands, while 802.20 below 3.5GHz.

  • 802.16e - based on an existing standard (802.16a), while 802.20 is starting from scratch.

  • 802.16e – approved by IEEE February 2006, while 802.20 is under development.

  • 802.16e - 120 to 150 kilometers per hour , while 802.20 up to 250 kilometers per hour

  • 802.16e - mobile user walking around with a PDA or laptop, while 802.20 will address high-speed mobility issues

  • 80216e – deployment in their existing [.16a] footprint, while 802.20 is looking at more ubiquitous coverage.

  • Fate of both standards rests with 802.16 - if there's success in the 802.16 market, it will portend good things for the 802.20


MBWA Deployment


System

iBurst

Access Scheme

TDMA/FDMA/SDMA

Spectrum

5 or 10 MHz TDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

1 Mbps/345 kbps(5 MHz bandwidth)

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA,

Standalone Ethernet

USB modem

Mobility

< 80 kmph

Standard affiliation

802.20

Commercialization

PBA, Australia; WBS, South Africa,8 ongoing trials

ArrayComm


System

RadioRouter

Access Scheme

Flash OFDM, Flash-OFDM Flexband

Spectrum

2x 1.25 MHz FDD,

2 x 5Mhz FDD (three 1.25Mhz carriers),

2 x 5Mhz FDD (one 5Mhz carrier)

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

1.5Mbps/500kbps, 2.5Mbps/900kbps,

6.0Mbps/2.5Mbps

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA

Desktop modem

Chipset

WiFi/FOFDM AP

Mobility

< 300 kmph

Standard affiliation

802.20

Commercialization

Nextel, North Carolina, US; CellularOne, Texas, US; Vodafone, Japan; Telstra, Australia; T-Mobile, Netherlands; OCTO (Public Safety), Washington DC, US.

Flarion


System

IPWireless

Access Scheme

UMTS TD-CDMA

Spectrum

5 or 10 MHz TDD

2x 5 MHz FDD

2x 10MHz FDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

1.5 Mbps/512 kbps (5 MHz bandwidth)

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA

Standalone Ethernet

USB modem

Chipset

IPWireless/WiFi gateway

VoIP Integrated Access Device

Mobility

< 120 kmph

Standardisation affiliation

3GPP UMTS TDD

Commercialisation

Woosh Wireless, NZ;

UK Broadband (PCCW);

Maxis, Malaysia; Sentech, South Africa; AirData, Germany

15 ongoing trials:

IPWirless


System

WIMAX/Wibro

Access Scheme

OFDMA

Spectrum

10 MHz TDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

3 Mbps/1 Mbps

Available Customer Device

PCMCIA

Mobility

< 120 kmph

Standard affiliation

WIMAX 802.16e

Commercialization

None yet.

Samsung


System

Ripwave

Access Scheme

MC-SCDMA

Spectrum

5 MHz TDD

Per User Throughout (DL/UL)

2.0 Mbps/1.0 Mbps (max.) for standalone and outdoor modem.

1.0 Mbps/.5 Mbps (max.) for PCMCIA

Available Customer Devices

PCMCIA

Standalone Ethernet/USB modem

Outdoor Modem

Mobility

Limited low speed mobility until WIMAX 802.16e

Standard affiliation

802.20

802.16e

Commercialization

IBAX, Italy;

Unwired, Australia;

11 ongoing trials.

Navini


References

  • http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/20/

  • http://www.iad.gov.pk

  • IEEE 802.16 specs


Questions


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