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Firm Valuation A Discounted Cash Flow Approach

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Firm ValuationA Discounted Cash Flow Approach

- The basic components of the valuation are:
- An estimate of the future cash flow stream from owning the asset
- The required rate of return for each period based upon the riskiness of the asset

- The value is then found by discounting each cash flow by its respective discount rate and then summing the PV’s (Basically the PV of an Uneven Cash Flow Stream)

- The value of any asset should then be equal to:

- The only question is what to use as the future cash flows when valuing the firm.
- Free Cash Flow
- The cash flow from operations that is actually available for distribution to investors (stockholders, bondholders and preferred stockholders)

Net Operating Profit After Taxes

+ depreciation

-Gross Capital Expenditure

-Change in net operating working capital

Free Cash Flow

NOPAT = EBIT(1-Tax Rate)

NOPAT is the amount of profit a firm would earn if it had no debt and held no financial assets.

- Five good uses of FCF
- Pay interest to debtholders (cost to firm is after tax interest expense)
- Repay debt
- Pay dividend to shareholders
- Repurchase stock from shareholders
- Buy marketable securities or other nonoperating assets.

- To develop the estimates of future cash flows you need to forecast the future income of the firm.
- This will be a result of your financial plan and proforma financial statement.

- Establish an outline of the process by which the firms goals are to be realized

- Examining interactions
- Exploring Options
- Avoiding Surprises
- Evaluating Feasibility

- Forecasting: What future assets will be needed and how will they be obtained
- Capital Structure Policy: How will the assets be financed
- Dividend Policy: What portion of earnings will be returned to shareholders
- Working Capital: The amount of liquidity needed for the firm to conduct daily operations

- Corporate Purpose: Overview of long run mission of firm
- Corporate Scope: Geographic location and main business line
- Corporate Objectives: Specific Goals for the firm ( targets)

- Corporate Strategy: A plan to obtain the firms objectives
- Operating Plans: Five year horizon each year less specific

- Pro Forma Financial Statements
- Determine the funds needed to support the plan
- Forecast the funds available
- Establish controls
- Plan for other contingencies
- Establish a performance based compensation plan

- Assume that all variables are directly tied to sales – If sales increases so do the other entries on the balance sheet and income statement (by the same %)
- As sales increase so do assets – why?
- (Assume total capacity utilization)

Sale1,000

Costs800

Net income200

Sale1,250

Costs1,000

Net income250

Assets500Debt250

Equity250

500500

Assets625Debt325

Equity325

625625

- Two categories those that vary directly with sales and those that do not.
Income Statement:

- Costs – remain a set % of sales
- Dividend Payout – Assume it remains constant
Balance Sheet

- Find % of sales for LHS, on the RHS not for L-T Debt or retained earnings or equity (only CL)
- Retained Earnings – use dividend payout

Sales1,000

Costs800

Taxable income200

Taxes68

Net Income132

Dividends44

Addition to Ret E88

RetRate=88/132=66.67%

Sales1,250

Costs1,000

Taxable income250

Taxes85

Net Income165

Addition to Ret Earn

.6667(165) = 110

Assets

Current Assets16016%

Accts Rec44044%

Inventory60060%

Total1200120%

Fixed Assets1800180%

Total Assets3000300%

Liabilities

Current Liab30030%

Notes Pay500na

Total400na

L-T debt800na

Ret Earn1000na

Total Liab3000300%

Assets

Current Assets20016%

Accts Rec55044%

Inventory75060%

Total1500120%

Fixed Assets2250180%

Total Assets3750300%

Laibilitess

Current Liab37530%

Accts Pay500na

Total875na

LT Debt800na

Ret Earn1110na

Total Liab2785300%

They do not balance! The difference is the EFN

EFN = 3750 –2785 = 965

- Should be equal to Change in Assets – Change in Liabilities
- Represents the amount of cash that needs to be raised to finance the assets.

- The rate of growth where the amount of external financing needed is equal to zero. This would mean that the additional assets required are equal to the increase in retained earnings
Internal Growth Rate = (ROA)b/[1-(ROA)b]

b = retention rate

- The firm wants to maintain a constant debt equity ratio (not increase its financial leverage). This implies that the firm will raise funds only in the form of debt, not external equity.
sustainable growth rate = (ROE)b/[1-(ROE)b]

- Financial Planning models that depend upon the financial statements leave out important financial relationships such as cash flows, risk ,and timing

- The value of any asset should be equal to:

- After forecasting the free cash flows it is then possible to find the value of operations for the firm.
- Notice, this depends upon a forecast of future free cash flow which much like dividends are not certain.

- What required return should be used in the formula?
- Weighted average measure of the returns required by the providers of capital (debt, preferred stock, common stock) to the firm.
- The weight corresponds to the amount of financing that comes from each source.
- We will calculate it in more detail soon.

- Pacific corporation is considering a new project. It wants to issue debt for 75% of the funding, investors will require an 8% return on the debt. The other 25% would come from new equity, investors require a 12% return on the equity.
- The WACC would then be:
= (.75)(.08) + (.25)(.12) = .09

- Just like the constant growth in dividend model if constant growth in free cash flow is assumed you can shorten the equation.

- This is the PV of the FCF from time N to time Infinity (think about the last part of a nonconstant dividend valuation)
- We will call it the terminal value or horizon value or continuing value.
- If the firm had constant growth forever N would be today.

- Generally we will not assume that the firm has constant growth in Free Cash Flow.
- Instead you want to forecast the future free cash flows for the firm over a reasonable period (5 to 10 years).
- Then calculate the terminal value for the firm from the end of the forecast period to infinity. (the process is very similar to finding the PV of a nonconstant growth dividend stream.

- The PV of all the future free cash flows provides an estimate of the total value of the firm
- We need to subtract the total amount of debt and claims by the owners of preferred stock.
- Divide the remaining amount by the number of shares outstanding to get the value of one share of outstanding stock.