The rise of europe
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The Rise of Europe. The Crusades Medieval Culture 1050-1270ACE The power of the Kings Heresy and Reform. The Crusades. Jerusalem Holy city to Jews, Christians and Moslems Jewish center of culture and religion Christian city of Christ’s death and resurrection

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The Rise of Europe

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The rise of europe

The Rise of Europe

  • The Crusades

  • Medieval Culture

  • 1050-1270ACE

  • The power of the Kings

  • Heresy and Reform

The crusades

The Crusades

  • Jerusalem

    • Holy city to Jews, Christians and Moslems

      • Jewish center of culture and religion

      • Christian city of Christ’s death and resurrection

      • Moslem site where Mohammad ascended into heaven

    • Under Moslem control since 600ACE

Moslems were tolerant

Moslems were tolerant

  • Jews and Christians were tolerated by Moslems

  • Viewed as people of the book

  • Shared the same ancient stories and traditions

  • Pilgrims traveled unmolested to Jerusalem

Seljuk turks

Seljuk Turks

  • New Islamic group from Central Asia

  • Took control of Jerusalem in late 1000’s ACE

  • Closed the city to pilgrims

  • Threatened Byzantine Empire

    • Byzantine Emperor wrote to Pope for help

    • Pilgrims were reported to be murdered by Turks

The first crusade

The First Crusade

  • 1095 Pope Urban II

    • Called for Christians to take back the Holy Lands

    • Knights and peasants vowed to join

    • Promised immediate salvation in heaven if killed

    • Knights saw opportunity for land and wealth

    • Peasants saw opportunity for freedom from feudalism

    • Crusaders sewed red crosses on their backs as a symbol of their commitment

    • Began a long period of persecution of non-Christians in Europe

      • Focus of bigotry was the small Jewish population

      • Crusaders killed entire communities

Appeal to church

Appeal to Church

  • Enabled the papacy to lead a popular movement

  • Gave Pope moral leadership of Europe

  • Peace in Europe

    • Pope forbade all warfare between Christians

    • Cubed violence

  • Redirected warriors attention to lands of the Muslims

The rise of europe

  • Led by French nobles

  • Groups met and joined in Constantinople in 1097

  • Byzantine government had limited goals

    • Wanted to recapture the land lost at the Battle of Manzikret

    • Frightened by the number of western knights


Western goal jerusalem

Western Goal - Jerusalem

  • 1099 conquered Jerusalem and killed most of the Moslem and Jewish inhabitants

  • Was a success as far as the west was concerned but set the tone of slaughter and brutality for the confrontations to follow

  • Some knights went home others stayed

  • 4 crusader kingdoms established

    • County of Edessa(1098-1144)

    • Principlaity of Antioch(1098-1268)

    • County of Tripoli(1109-1289)

    • Kingdom of Jerusalem(1099-1187)

  • Trade was reestablished and cultural isolation of western Europe ended

Second crusade

Second Crusade

  • Seljuk's re-conquered parts of Crusader states

  • Pope Eugenius IV called for a Second crusade

  • King Louis VII of France and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III led armies

  • 1147 to 1149

  • Complete failure because of animosity between the kings

Third crusade

Third Crusade

  • Salidin united Muslims in 1187

    • Recaptured Jerusalem

    • Europe went nuts

      • 3 kings led crusade 1189-1192

        • Fredrick Barbarrossa of Germany

          • Died on the way to Palestine-drowned

          • Army returned home

        • Philip Augustus of France

          • Quit and went home

        • Richard I – the Lionheart of England

          • Left to fight alone

          • Won several battles but lost the war

Other crusades

Other Crusades

  • 1200’s other unsuccessful Crusades 7 in all

  • European leaders no longer religiously obsessed

  • Concentrated on trade and centralization of their own powers

  • Turned against Europeans as well

    • Albigensian Crusade 1209-1229

      • Cathars in France killed in thousands

      • Heightened anti-Jewish sentiment

Effects of the crusade

Effects of the Crusade

  • Real importance lies in the interaction of Europe with the cultural advanced east

  • Broke down feudalism and increased the power to the kings

    • Nobles died in battle without heirs

      • Kings got the land

    • Nobles sold their estates to gain cash and supplies to go on crusade

      • Fewer knights

      • Serfs allowed to purchase freedom – more skilled workers and towns grew



  • Greek and Roman classics brought to Europe

  • New interest in literature and art

  • Luxury goods were in demand

    • Spices for food

    • Silk

    • Tapestries

  • Improved technology as Muslim science and achievements were learned

  • New military skills and advanced weaponry

Birth of commerce

Birth of Commerce

  • Agricultural Advances

    • New Plows

      • More land

      • Produce more and increased food production

      • New lands opened up

      • Germans moved to eastern Europe doubling the size of their lands

    • New harness and Yokes

      • Horses could be used instead of oxen

      • Pulled faster



  • Revival of towns cause rapid growth of trade

  • By sea, road and rivers goods from east and other towns arrived

  • Roads were rebuilt and repaired

  • Venice, Pisa, Genoa controlled the Mediterranean trade –fur,slaves,timber,cloth

  • Flanders(Belgium) controlled trade on northern coast - Wool

  • Trade fairs



  • Barter first used for trade

    • 2 chickens for 1 yard of cloth

    • Luxury goods required cash

    • Common means of exchange was needed

  • Money changers

    • Frequently Italian or Jewish

    • Determined value of currencies and exchanged them

    • Developed means to transferring funds

    • Nobles and clergy dependent on them

      • Too far in debt

      • Serfs allowed to purchase freedoms, towns purchased more rights, or Pogroms



  • With decline of warfare and raiding towns grew

  • Usually on trade routes

  • Walled to protect itself from bandits

  • Shops on ground level homes above

  • No sanitation and disease a constant problem

  • 1348-1350 Black Death – bubonic plague carried by rats and fleas killed 1/3 of Europe's population

  • Merchants paid lords for charters of their freedoms(rights) and formed communes



  • Merchants and artisans formed associations

  • Merchant guilds formed monopolies on products

    • Uniform pricing

    • foreign

  • Craft guilds used for training and quality control

    • Rules of on prices, wages, employment

    • Masters

      • Trained apprentices

        • Worked without pay

      • Journey men

        • Worked with pay

Women in urban areas

Women in urban areas

  • Often towns had more women then men

  • More opportunity and women could not inherit

  • Most industry – textile (women’s work)

  • Also worked as undertakers and midwives

Rise of middle class

Rise of Middle Class

  • Wealthy merchants, bankers and craftsmen

  • Burgers, bourgeoisie, burgesses

  • As kings and nobles relied on them for cash and credit they gained political power

Town government

Town Government

  • Exchanged cash for charters

    • Charters specified rights of city dwellers

    • Also spelled out obligations

  • In Italy cities became independent city states

    • Hindered nation building and left the country open to invasion



  • Most people were illiterate

  • Clergy were the only educated class

  • Growth of towns required an educated middle class

    • Needed lawyers

    • Universities separate from the church began to evolve

      • Roman Classics and Law

      • Greek philosophy and science

Medieval scholars

Medieval Scholars

  • Peter Abelard

    • University of Paris

    • Wrote Sic et Non showing 2 sides to religious questions

  • Thomas Aquinas

    • Universities of Paris and Naples

    • Suma Theologica

    • Claimed reason was a gift from God and could be used to find philosophical answers

Medieval literature

Medieval Literature

  • Songs and Epics of non literate times collected and written down

  • Beowulf

    • Anglo-Saxon Epic

  • Song of Roland

  • Romances

    • Tristan and Isolde

    • King Arthur

  • Dante-Divine Comedy

  • Chaucer – Canterbury Tales

Medieval art

Medieval Art

  • Seen in Cathedrals

  • Sculpture

  • Stained glass

  • Illuminated manuscripts

The rise of monarchy

The rise of Monarchy

  • Norman Invasion of England

    • United England under Planteganets

      • William

        • Henry I

          • Edward I

          • Henry II- Eleanor of Aquitaine

    • Kings of England owned more land in France then in England

    • Kings of England owned more land in France then the French King

1066 the battle of hastings

1066 the Battle of Hastings

  • William of Normandy (France)

    • Claimed throne of England

    • Said the king, Edward the Confessor, and his cousin had on his deathbed left the throne to him

    • Harold the Edward’s son-in-law claimed the throne

    • War and the last successful invasion of England took place..William won

    • Gave fiefs of land to his Norman knights and split them up so no one controlled large blocks of land

Kings power grew under the plantagenets

Kings power grew under the Plantagenets

  • Henry II 1154-1189

    • Established common law

    • Grand jury set up – charged crimes

    • Petit jury-ruled on crimes

    • Invaded Ireland 1171 beginning the Anglo-Irish conflict

  • Thomas a Becket

    • Arch bishop of Canterbury

    • Opposed the growing power of Henry over the church

    • Murdered by followers of Henry and became a saint

Richard i the lion heart

Richard I – the lion heart

  • Spent most of his rule in Middle East and France

  • Only in England a total of 6 months

  • Fought crusades

  • Taken hostage and his ransom bankrupted England

John i

John I

  • Ruled while Richard was gone

  • Raised taxes to pay for the crusade and ransom

  • Lost land to France

  • Nobles revolted

    • Runnymede 1215 forced John to sign the Magna Carta (Great Charter)

    • Beginning of limits on royal power – no taxation without representation

Henry iii

Henry III

  • John’s son

  • Middle class came into being

  • Towns grew in power

  • Townspeople allowed to sit on the Great Council to advise the king

    • Became known as parliament

    • Forced to allow parliament to meet 3 times a year



  • 987 Hugh Capet

    • Began with a power base of Paris

    • Expanded

    • Capetian rulers in power for 300 years

  • Louis VI (the fat)1108 -1137

    • used townspeople to strengthen king

    • Took power from nobles

    • Granted self government to towns

Philip ii 1180 1223

Philip II 1180-1223

  • Double the size of France – taking land from John of England

  • Formed semi permanent royal army loyal to him and not the lords

  • Strengthened the power of the curia regis – royal courts

  • Louis IX 1125-1270 St. Louis

    • Made royal courts dominant over feudal counts

    • Only king could mint coins

    • Banned warfare between his vassals

Philip iv the fair 1285 1314

Philip IV ( the fair) 1285-1314

  • Raised taxes

  • Taxed the clergy – Rome screamed but powerless

  • Called the Estates-General

    • Assembly of nobles, clergy and townspeople

    • Used them to raise national taxes

    • Never as powerful as Parliament

The holy roman empire

The Holy Roman Empire

  • Germans controlled

  • Claimed right to influence election of Popes

  • Civil wars between German lords kept them from gaining power

  • Henry IV

    • Quarrel with Pope Gregory VII 1073

    • Lay investiture

    • Henry had to back down and beg forgiveness

  • Concordant of Worms 1122

    • Emperor named bishops and gave land

    • Pope could reject unworthy candidates

100 years war

100 Years War

  • War between France and England

    • England was defending its land ownership

    • France was try to reclaim its land

  • 1328 French king died without heir

    • English King claimed the throne

    • French supported Valois claim

  • English at first successful due to the use of its long bow archers

    • Battle of Crecy 1346

    • Battle of Agincourt 1415

Jean d arc

Jean d’Arc

  • Peasant woman

  • Claimed God had spoken to her and demanded she help remove English from France

  • 1429 went to Chinon and persuaded Charles heir to thrown to give her his troops

  • At Orleans she defeated the English

  • 1430 Captured by English and burned as a witch

  • French rallied and threw out the English



  • After defeat of English kings were powerful

  • Louis XI united France

  • Strengthened the bureaucracy

  • Promoted trade

  • Limited power of nobles



  • Civil war

  • Henry VI died childless

  • War between York and Tutors

    • Symbols were the red and white rose

    • War of the Roses

  • Tutor family triumphed

    • Henry VII married daughter to the king of Scotland

  • Made England strong and united



  • Main problem Islamic control of south

  • Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

    • United Christian forces

    • 1492 more important as the year the Muslims were driven from Spain

    • Also little recognized explore Christopher Columbus set sail for India by going west

    • Inquisition court enforced Catholicism and Jews and Muslims forced to flee or die

Trouble in the church

Trouble in the Church

  • Weakened by warfare, disease, and rise of literacy

  • 1300’s papacy came under control of the French monarchy

    • Pope Clement V 1205 moved from Rome to Avignon to escape civil wars

      • Appointed only French Cardinals

      • Successors all French remained in Avignon until 1377

      • Called the Babylonian Captivity



  • 1377 Pope Gregory XI left Avignon for Rome

  • Roman mobs force college of cardinals to elect an Italian to succeed him

  • College elected a second Pope that moved back to Avignon

  • Church was divided until 1417



  • Calls came from all levels for change

  • Simony – selling of church positions

  • Indulgences- pay away sins

  • John Wycliff

    • English

    • Claimed Bible was sole authority for religious truth

    • Translated Bible from Latin into English

    • Support so wide spread he could not be punished

Reform ii

Reform II

  • Jan Hus

    • Czech

    • Reforms were against abuses of church and for Czech control

    • Moved to eliminate power of German Clergy

    • 1415 called to council of Constance to defend his views

    • Burned at the stake as a heretic

    • Five crusades against the Hussites did not stop the revolt

The rise of europe

  • Bennet, J.M. & Hollister, C.W. (2006). Medieval Europe: A Short History.10th Edition. Boston. McGraw-Hill

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