Conducting a literature review prof cg hartell
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Conducting a literature review Prof CG Hartell. The l iterature review. 4. Adding new perspectives. 3. Filling in gaps in the wall. 1. Present state of the literature. 2. Identifying cracks in the wall. What is a review of literature?.

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Conducting a literature review prof cg hartell

Conducting a literature reviewProf CG Hartell


Conducting a literature review prof cg hartell

The literature review

4. Adding new perspectives

3. Filling in gaps in the wall

1. Present state of the literature

2. Identifying cracks in the wall


What is a review of literature

What is a review of literature?

  • A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers.

  • The purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are.

  • It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries.

  • It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work.


What is a literature review

What is a literature review?

  • IT IS:

    • A critical, factual overview of the state of the scholarship on your topic

    • The background to and justification for the research undertaken

    • An encouraging factor for a reflective and integrative approach to research

  • A list of bibliographic citations

  • A theory base to you subject

  • A survey to outline existing knowledge / published works

  • A vehicle for learning and exploring existing research


Conducting a literature review prof cg hartell

A literature review uses as its database reports of primary/original scholarships. It seeks to describe, analyse, compare ,summarise, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content / findings / ideas of primary reports.

Cooper, 1985


Conducting a literature review prof cg hartell

The process of the literature review involves exploring literature in order to establish the status quo, formulate a problem or research enquiry, defend the value of pursuing a line of enquiry and compare findings/ideas with that of the researcher.


The purpose of the literature review

The purpose of the literature review

  • Demonstration of professional competence in an area of research

  • Triggers creative thinking/new ideas

  • Helps to establish a theoretical framework

  • Justifies the need for the research


The purpose of the literature review1

The purpose of the literature review

  • It shows:

    • that you are aware of what is going on in your field

    • there is a theory base for the work topic you are proposing

    • how your work fits (the gap) in with what had already been done

    • that your work will lead to new knowledge


Criteria for a literature review

Criteria for a literature review

(depends on the nature of the study)

Comprehensiveness (all past and current knowledge)

Specificity (focussing on a topic)

Authority (authoritative authors in the field)

Currency (latest thinking and writing in the field)

Availability (materials readily available)

Relevance (only material relevant to the problem)

Exclusion (materials marginally relevant or irrelevant to the problem)


Why is it important to undertake a literature review

Why is it important to undertake a literature review?

Contextualizing the study

Describe the bigger that provides the background

Create the space or gap for your research


Where do we find the literature review in a dissertation or thesis

Where do we find the literature review in a dissertation or thesis?

Introduction

Distinct chapter or chapters

Reference to the related literature is interspersed throughout the dissertation

Assists you in the analysis and interpretation of your data


Guidelines for writing a literature review

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 1: Review APA and/or Harvard guidelines

Review APA and/or Harvard

Read through the APA and/or Harvard guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA and/or Harvard style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations.


Guidelines for writing a literature review1

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 1: Review APA and/or Harvard guidelines

Review APA and/or Harvard

Read through the APA and/or Harvard guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA and/or Harvard style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations.


Guidelines for writing a literature review2

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 2: Decide on a topic

I am studying (topic)

because I want to find out (problem/what/why)

in order to (justification/rationale/why?)

by (broad approach/method/how?)


Guidelines for writing a literature review3

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review

Familiarize yourself with online databases.

Using relevant databases and search for literature sources.

Import your references into your RefWorks account. You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to.


Guidelines for writing a literature review4

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review

Databases

  • SABINET: for SA publications

  • ERIC: for International publications on education

  • RefWorks is a web-bases bibliography manager

  • Endnote is a specialised database programme for storing and managing bibliographic references


Guidelines for writing a literature review5

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review

Ask yourself questions like these:

  • What is the specific thesis, problem, or research question that my literature review help to define?

  • What type of literature review am I conducting?

  • What is the scope of my literature review? What types of publications am I using (e.g., journals, books, government documents, popular media)? What discipline am I working in (e.g., nursing psychology, sociology, medicine)?

  • How good was my information seeking?

  • Have I critically analysed the literature I use? Do I follow through a set of concepts and questions, comparing items to each other in the ways they deal with them? Instead of just listing and summarizing items, do I assess them, discussing strengths and weaknesses?

  • Will the reader find my literature review relevant, appropriate, and useful?


Guidelines for writing a literature review6

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 4: Analyze the literature

  • Overview the articles

  • Group the articles into categories

  • Take notes:

    • Decide on the format in which you will take notes

    • Define key terms

    • Note key statistics

    • Select useful quotes

    • Note emphases, strengths and weaknesses

    • Identify major trends or patterns

    • Identify gaps in the literature

    • Identify relationships among studies

    • Keep your review focused on your topic

    • Evaluate your references for currency and coverage


Guidelines for writing a literature review7

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format

Examples of tables:

  • Definitions of key terms and concepts

  • Research methods

  • Summary of research results


Guidelines for writing a literature review8

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review

Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write

Consider how you reassemble your notes

Create a topic outline that traces your argument

Reorganize your notes

Note differences

Look for obvious gaps

Describe relevant theories

Discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory

Summarize periodically

Present conclusions and implications

Suggest specific directions for future research

Flesh out your outline


Guidelines for writing a literature review9

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 7: Writing the review

Identify the topic and broad problem area

Indicate why the topic is important

Indicate why certain studies are important

Mention if a landmark study was replicated and indicate the results

Discuss other literature reviews on your topic

Justify comments such as, “no studies were found”

Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article


Guidelines for writing a literature review10

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Step 8: Developing a coherent essay

(Galvan, 2006: 91-96)

At the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered

Specify your point of view early in the review

Aim for a clear and cohesive essay

Use transitions to help trace your argument

If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately

Write a conclusion for the end of the review

Check the flow of your argument for coherence


Plagiarism policy

Plagiarism Policy

You are guilty of plagiarism if you copy something from another author’s work (e.g. a book, an article or a website) without acknowledging the source and pass it off as your own. In effect you are stealing something that belongs to someone else. This is not only the case when you copy work word-for-word (verbatim), but also when you submit someone else’s work in a slightly altered form (paraphrase) or use a line of argument without acknowledging it.


References

REFERENCES

  • Prescribed material:

  • Maree, K. 2012. Complete your thesis or dessirtations successfully: Practical guidelines

  • Moggan-Rallis, H. 2006. Guidelines for writing a literature review. (Article)

  • Tayler, D. 2012. Writing at the University of Toronto (Article)

  • Randoph, J.J. 2009. Practical Assessment, esearch & Evaluation: A Guide to writing the dissertation literature review. 14(13): 1-13

  • Department of Library Services. Quick Guide to Reference Techniques. Havard and Apa. University of Pretoria.


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