Sample’s collection and sending: A first morning voided urine specimen obtained by a clean catch technique yields the most information. Other collections of urine might have their specific usage ( random urine, postcibal urine, 12 hours urine, 24 hours urine, etc.) The urine should be examined promptly by both chemical and microscopic means.
red blood cell glomerulonephritis, vasculitis
white blood cell interstitial nephritis, pyelonephritis
epithelial cell acute tubular necrosis,interstitial
granular renal parenchymal disease (non-specific)
waxy ,broad advanced renal failure
hyaline normal finding in concentrated urine
fatty heavy proteinuria
red blood cell urinary tract infection or inflammation
white blood cell urinary tract infection or inflammation
Tests of glomerular function:
Renal tubular function is evaluated by tests that examine the ability of the kidney to maintain salt and water balance as well as acid-base balance.
Case analysis (BUN):
History and physical examination : A 48-year- old female patient was admitted with the complains of severe headache with a fever, edema in her face and eyelids for 3 days. From yesterday, she found her amount of urine was decrease once a day . The color of her urine is reddish and cloudy. Physical examination her blood pressure is 180/100 mm Hg , there is severe pitting edema in her face and legs.