Behavior Therapy
Download
1 / 13

Behavior Therapy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 100 Views
  • Uploaded on

Behavior Therapy. The History. Rooted in Experimental Psychology Based on Pavlovian concept of Classical Conditioning & Skinnerian Operant Conditioning Working only on observable events to work with unobservable events. The Experiments. Classical Conditioning

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Behavior Therapy' - talon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

The History

  • Rooted in Experimental Psychology

  • Based on Pavlovian concept of Classical Conditioning & Skinnerian Operant Conditioning

  • Working only on observable events to work with unobservable events


The Experiments

  • Classical Conditioning

  • I.P.Pavlov – Experiments on a Dog

  • John B. Watson – Albert & White Rat

  • Mowrer & Mowrer –Treatment for Bedwetting

  • Operant Conditioning

  • E.L.Thorndike – “law of effect” (consequences that follow behavior help learning)

  • B.F.Skinner – experiment on Pigeon

  • Social Cognitive Theory

  • A. Bandura:

  • - triadic reciprocal: the environment, the person, the behavioral action

  • Individual learns by observing others

  • Self-efficacy

  • Self-awareness, self-inducements, self-reinforcement


The Theory of Personality

  • Positive Reinforcement: a positive event presented as a consequence of a person’s performing a behavior

  • Extinction: withdrawn reinforcer terminates behavior

  • Generalization: the reinforced behavior is learned for other situations

  • Discrimination: ability to respond differently depending upon the stimulus condition

  • Shaping: reinforcing behavior approximation from the original to the desired behavior


The Theory of

Observational Learning

  • Attentional Processes – seeing is not enough; one must perceive accurately by attending at varying degrees

  • Retention Processes – imaginal & verbal coding (self-talk) describe subvocal events for remembering

  • Motor Reproduction Process – translating observed phenomena into action

  • Motivational Process – The modeled behavior that puts into action will continue if being reinforced

  • Self-Efficacy – individual perception of self-ability to perform in different types of situation; the major source of this includes:

    • Performance accomplishment: successes are likely to create high expectations

    • Vicarious Expectations: expecting able to do similar as the observed model

    • Verbal Persuasion: impact of encouragement/ praise from others

    • Emotional Arousal


The Goals of Behavior Therapy

  • Changing The Target Behavior

    • Perform Functional Analysis

      • Define clearly & accurately the target behavior

      • Identify possible actions

      • Collaborate with clients on target behavior preference

    • Evaluate/ assess behavior, antecedents &consequence

      • Identify causes & reasons

      • Choose interventions

    • Select Appropriate Goals

      • Identify specific goals

      • Let clients explore the advantage/ disadvantage

      • Measure achievement


The Assessment

  • Behavioral Interviews:

    • What, When, Where, How, How Often

  • Behavioral Reports & Ratings:

    • Rating scale on behavior inventory

  • Behavioral Observations:

    • Frequency of performed target behavior

    • Diaries indicating date, time place, & activity of the behavior

    • Naturalistic Observation to eliminate Reactivity

  • Physiological Measurements:

    • Blood pressure, Heart rate, Respiratory functioning, Skin electrical conductivity


The Treatment

  • Systematic Desensitization (Joseph Wolpe)

  • Imaginal Flooding

    • Contrast to Gradual Systematic Desensitization, this technique is conducted by exposing the client to a frightening or anxiety provoking images

    • The mental images are indicated in SUD (subjective unit of discomfort)

    • Familiar condition conducted by imagining will reduce anxiety

    • Relaxation procedure may includes prior, during & after therapy

    • A specific form of this therapy: Implosive Therapy (by Thomas Stampfl)

  • In Vivo

    • Procedure is conducted in actual environment

    • 2 types: one similar to SD, another similar to IF

    • Relaxation is conducted whenever client is in a stressful / at tensed

  • Modeling (Bandura)

  • Self Instructional: Cognitive Behavioral (Meichenbaum)


Systematic Desensitization

  • Relaxation

    • Twice a day 10-15 minutes Relaxation (by Jacobson, 1938)

    • Clients learn to control muscles into relaxing condition

    • Relaxed state is paired with imagined anxious situation

  • Anxiety Hierarchies

    • Obtain information on specific situation producing anxiety

    • List the situations in order on scale 0-100 (SUD = subj units of discomfort

    • Determine the prioritized condition to treat

  • Desensitization

    • Ask clients about the SUD level

    • Presenting neutral scene

    • Check how vivid the client can imagine/ visualize

    • Rise the SUD level with more intense scene – recheck the response, conduct relaxation

    • continues


Modeling Technique

(Albert Bandura)

  • 5 Basic Functions of Modeling:

  • TEACHINGthrough demonstration – sometimes therapist perform the behavior repetitiously; the clients observe the model then perform the behavior several times until achieving the expected stage

  • PROMPTthrough imitation – the therapist prompt the client to imitate the movement such as in sport intruction

  • MOTIVATEby reinforcement – thus the client perceives the enjoyment of behaving in a certain way

  • REDUCE ANXIETY by reinforcement – such as instructing a child to swim, when the model is in the pool, the child feel anxious knowing all right being in the pool

  • DISCOURAGING – watching a film on the impact of smoking onm lung cancer discourage smokers to continue smoking


Modeling Technique

  • Live Modeling:

    • Watch live model (sometimes the Therapist) to perform the expected behavior

    • The model repeats the behavior several times

  • Symbolic Modeling:

    • When live model is not present

    • By film/ book including read story/ story telling

    • Indirect modeling

  • Role Playing:

    • Learn to interact in different situations/ posititions – sometimes the therapist role play the client/ someone’s in client’s life

  • Participant Modeling:

    • Therapist model the client’s behavior

    • Therapist guide the client to behave as expected by participating – meanwhile get ready to give help when needed such as in mountain climbing

  • Covert Modeling:

    • Visualizing the model, visualizing the consequences

    • The therapist describes the situation, and let the client consider the impact of the behavior


Self Instructional Training

(Meichenbaum)

A way for people to teach themselves how to deal effectively with situations that had previously caused difficulties – the therapist models the appropriate behavior, the clients models the therapist’s behavior & repeats / practice

  • A form of self-management

  • A way people teach themselves to deal with previously difficult situations

    • First the client models the behavior

    • Second the client practices the behavior

    • Third the client repeats the instructions to self

  • Sometimes use role play

  • Sometimes use taped instructions


Stress Inoculation

(Meichenbaum)

  • The principle

    • Changing the beliefs and negative inner dialogue to positive & rehearsing the behavior

  • The conceptual phase

    • Gathering the information & see how client develop the inner dialogue

    • Educate the client by pointing out the cognitive & emotional responses

  • Skill Acquisition: Use cognitive behavioral skills:

    • relaxation

    • cognitive restructuring

      • “I’m afraid & can’t do anything” >> “When I am afraid I pause and feel can not do things”

    • problem solving skills

      • “I will change the situation”, “ I make the plan”, “I can walk with others”

    • self-reinforcement

      • “I do better”, “ I feel comfortable”

  • Application

    • Visualize

    • Mentally rehearse

    • Action


  • ad