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Hydraulics. hy·drau·lics [ h drólliks ] noun study of fluids:  the study of water or other fluids at rest or in motion, especially with respect to engineering applications. Objectives. Behavior of liquids & theory of operation Basic hydraulic system components

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hydraulics

Hydraulics

hy·drau·lics [h drólliks ] nounstudy of fluids:  the study of water or other fluids at rest or in motion, especially with respect to engineering applications

objectives
Objectives
  • Behavior of liquids & theory of operation
  • Basic hydraulic system components
  • Advantages & disadvantages of hydraulics
  • Electrohydraulic systems including speed gears & steering gears
introduction uses
Introduction/Uses
  • Hydraulics used in many applications:
    • Steering/control systems (rudder, planes)
    • Deck machinery (anchor windlass, capstans, winches)
    • Masts & antennae on submarines
    • Weapons systems (loading & launching)
    • Other: elevators, presses
hydraulic theory
Hydraulic Theory
  • Hydraulics
    • Covers the physical behavior of liquids in motion
    • Pressurized oil used to gain mechanical advantage and perform work
  • Important Properties
    • Shapelessness
    • Incompressibility
    • Transmission of Force
important properties
Important Properties
  • “Shapelessness”
    • Liquids have no neutral form
    • Conform to shape of container
    • Easily transferred through piping from one location to another
  • Incompressibility
    • Liquids are essentially incompressible
    • Once force is removed, liquid returns to original volume (no permanent distortion)
  • Transmission of Force
    • Force is transmitted equally & undiminished

in every direction -> vessel filled with pressure

hydraulic theory1
Hydraulic Theory
  • Pascal’s Law
    • Magnitude of force transferred is in direct proportion to the surface area (F = P*A)
    • Pressure = Force/Area
  • Liquid properties enable large objects (rudder, planes, etc) to be moved smoothly
basic hydraulic system
Basic Hydraulic System
  • Hydraulic Fluid
    • Usually oil (2190 TEP)
  • Pressure Source
    • Hydraulic pump (A-end of system)
  • Pressure user
    • Hydraulic motor (B-end of system)
  • Piping system (w/ valves, tanks, etc)
    • Get fluid from A-end to B-end
hydraulic pump a end
Hydraulic Pump (A-End)
  • Pumps can be positive displacement or centrifugal
  • Waterbury pump
    • Variable-stroke piston pump
    • Tilting box can tilt fwd/aft while pump rotates
    • Angle of tilting box determines capacity and direction of oil flow
hydraulic pump a end1
Hydraulic Pump (A-End)
  • Variable-stroke piston pump
  • Tilting box can tilt fwd/aft while pump rotates
  • Angle of tilting box determines capacity and dir. of flow
cylinder motor b end
Cylinder/Motor (B-end)
  • Piston/cylinder used if desired motion is linear
    • Hydraulic pressure moves piston & ram
    • Load is connected to ram (rudder, planes, masts, periscopes)

Cylinder

Piston

RAM

Seal

Hydraulic Fluid Supply/Return Ports

cylinder motor b end1
Cylinder/Motor (B-end)
  • Motor used if desired motion is rotary
    • Essentially a variable-stroke pump in reverse
    • Used for capstan, anchor windlass, etc
piping system
Piping System
  • Has to withstand excessive pressure
  • Valves, filters, & HX’s all necessary
  • Accumulators
    • Holds system under pressure (w/out contin. pump)
    • Provides hydraulics when pump off/lost
    • Compensates for leakage/makeup volume
    • Types: piston, bladder, & direct contact
accumulator types
Accumulator Types
  • Piston
    • Most common
  • Bladder
    • Gun mounts
    • Steering systems
  • Direct contact
    • Least common
advantages
Advantages
  • Convenient power transfer
    • Few moving parts
    • Low losses over long distances
    • Little wear
  • Flexibility
    • Distribute force in multiple directions
    • Safe and reliable for many uses
    • Can be stored under pressure for long periods
  • Variable speed control
    • Quick response (linear and rotary)
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Requires positive confinement (to give shape)
  • Fire/explosive hazard if leaks or ruptures
  • Filtration critical - must be free of debris
  • Manpower intensive to clean up
electrohydraulic drive system
Electrohydraulic Drive System
  • Uses hydraulics to transfer power from electric motor to load
  • Rotary: Waterbury pump connected to rotary piston hydraulic motor (speed gear)
    • Tilting box of A-end controls direction/speed of B-end
    • Adv: high starting torque, reversibility, high power-to-weight ratio
  • ex: Electrohydraulic Speed Gear or Steering Gear
    • capstan, anchor windlass, cranes, elevator, ammo hoist
electrohydraulic steering gear
Electrohydraulic Steering Gear
  • Same as speed gear except B-end is a hydraulic cylinder to produce linear motion
  • Waterbury pumps connected by piping to hydraulic ram cylinder
    • Various methods for connecting rams to tillers
    • Two pumps for redundancy & reliability
    • Movement of steering wheel through hydraulic system moves rudder
control of system
Control of System
  • Remote control
    • Normal method
    • Control from bridge
  • Emergency
    • Take local control
    • Manually position control surface/rudder
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