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1-1 Overview 1-2 The Nature of Data 1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics 1-4 Design of Experiments. Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics.

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1-1 Overview

1-2 The Nature of Data

1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics

1-4 Design of Experiments

Chapter 1

Introduction to Statistics


The most dangerous profession

A Swiss physician compiled longevity data for different professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

Is being a student really more dangerous?

The most dangerous profession?


Statistics professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

Two Meanings

Specific numbers

Method of analysis

1-1 Overview


Specific number professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

numerical measurement determined by a set of data

Example: Twenty-three percent of people polled believed that there are too many polls.

Statistics


Statistics

Method of analysis professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data

Statistics


Definitions

Population professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied.

Definitions


Definitions1

Census professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

the collection of data from every element in a population

Sample

a subcollection of elements drawn from a population

Definitions


1-2 professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)The Nature of Data


Parameter professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population

Definitions


Parameter professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population

Definitions

population

parameter


Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Statistic

  • a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample


sample professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

statistic

Definitions

  • Statistic

  • a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample


Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • numbers representing counts or measurements


Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • numbers representing counts or measurements

  • Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data

  • can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristics


Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • the incomes of college graduates


Definitions professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

  • Quantitative data

  • the incomes of college graduates

  • Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data

  • the genders (male/female) of college graduates


Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values

0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

Definitions


Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values

0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

Continuous

(numerical) data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps

Definitions

2

3


Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day.

Definitions


Discrete professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)

The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day.

Continuous

The amounts of milk that cows produce; for example, 2.343115 gallons a day.

Definitions


Nominal professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)- categories only

Ordinal- categories with some order

Interval- differences but no natural starting point

Ratio- differences and a natural starting point

Levels of Measurement


Nominal professions. He used death certificates that included name, age at death and profession. He found that students had the lowest average length of life ( 20.7 yrs)- categories only

Ordinal- categories with some order

Interval- differences but no natural starting point

Ratio- differences and a natural starting point

Levels of Measurement


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