Syb case 2
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SYB Case #2

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Syb case 2

SYB Case #2


Syb case 2

G.C is a 90yr male who presents with sudden onset progressive weakness for the past 2 days. Experiencing epigastric pain for the past week with poor PO intake. 2 formed bowel movements per day. Black stool, no hematochezia. EGD was normal.History of taking aspirin and Relafen(NSAID) for knee osteoarthritis.


Syb case 2

Labs

  • Na 135

  • K 4.9

  • Cl 106

  • Bicarb 20

  • BUN54

  • Cr 1.05

  • Glucose 190

  • Ca 8.7

  • WBC 12.7

  • Hemoglobin 6.8

  • Hct 20.1

  • Platelets 313

  • PT 10.9

  • INR 1.04

  • PTT<20

  • ALT 13

  • Alkaline phosphatase 29

  • Lipase 187


X ray abdominal series

X-Ray Abdominal Series

  • Nonobstructive bowel gas pattern. No evidence of free air.


Ct pelvis and abdomen with contrast

CT Pelvis and Abdomen with Contrast

  • No etiology for patient’s black tarry stools and abdominal pain

  • No evidence of obstruction

  • No free fluid or free air

  • Scattered vascular calcifications of the abdominal aorta


Znmz gi bleeding study

ZNMZ GI Bleeding Study

  • Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

  • Sequential abdominal images obtained through 90minutes

  • Nuclear scintigraphy can detect hemorrhage at rates as low as 0.1 mL/min.

  • Findings: accumulation of radiotracer within the small bowel progressing distally on the dynamic images with the origin likely at the duodenum or proximal jejunum.


99m tc labeled rbc scintigraphy

99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy

  • The bleeding site can be identified when intraluminal accumulation of99mTc-labeled RBCs is observed during the dynamic phase of scanning.

  • Nuclear scintigraphy is sensitive enough to diagnose ongoing bleeding at a rate as low as 0.1 mL/min

  • It is not highly accurate in locating the bleeding point. Provides approximate location only and best for bleeding beyond the ligament of Treitz. Most sensitive for lower GI bleeding.


Visceral arteriogram

Visceral Arteriogram

  • Identification of vascular abnormalities and the precise bleeding point

  • Catheter is inserted into the common femoral artery at the level of the groin and advanced to the superior mesenteric artery.

  • The extravasation of contrast material indicates a positive study finding.

  • Findings: Variant celiac anatomy with a replaced common hepatic artery arsing from the SMA. The gastroduodenal artery and its branches and the superior mesenteric artery and its branches, are normal. No site of active extravasation was identified. No early draining vein to suggest an area of angiodysplasia was identified.

  • Impression: normal visceral arteriogram, without evidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.


Selective mesenteric angiography

Selective mesenteric angiography

  • Mesenteric angiography remains the criterion standard in precise localization of the lower GI bleed.

  • Selective mesenteric angiography can detect bleeding at a rate of more than 0.5 mL/min.

  • Concentrate on the major mesenteric vessel most likely to be responsible (eg, the inferior mesenteric artery in bright red rectal bleeding). If no bleeding is identified, the other major mesenteric vessels, including the superior mesenteric artery and celiac axis, are studied.

  • In some cases, aberrant vascular anatomy can contribute to colonic or small bowel circulation

  • Once the bleeding point is identified, angiography offers potential treatment options, such as selective vasopressin drip and embolization


Syb case 2

  • As of yesterday G.C is still in the hospital

  • Arterial Duplex

  • 1. No evidence of stenosis/occlusion identified in the common femoralor femoral arteries.2. Occlusion of the popliteal, anterior tibial, posterior tibial, andperoneal arteries.3. ABIs not obtained due to lack of pulses in the right leg andnoncompessibletibial vessels in the left.


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