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Music: An Appreciation 8 th Edition by Roger Kamien . Unit IV 巴洛克時期 1600-1750. Presentation Development: Robert Elliott University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. 巴洛克時期. Time-line: Shakespeare: Hamlet -1600 Cervantes: Don Quixote -1605 Galileo: Earth orbits Sun-1610 King James Bible-1611

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music an appreciation 8 th edition by roger kamien

Music: An Appreciation8th Editionby Roger Kamien

Unit IV

巴洛克時期

1600-1750

Presentation Development: Robert Elliott

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

slide2
巴洛克時期
  • Time-line:
    • Shakespeare: Hamlet-1600
    • Cervantes: Don Quixote-1605
    • Galileo: Earth orbits Sun-1610
    • King James Bible-1611
    • Newton: Principia Mathematica-1687
    • Defoe: Robinson Crusoe-1719
    • Swift: Gulliver’s Travels-1726
the baroque style
巴洛克風格The Baroque Style
  • Baroque style “fills the space”
  • Time of flamboyant lifestyle
  • Visual Art
  • Implies motion
  • Note pictures
  • Compare sculpture
  • Busy
  • Note pictures
  • Architecture
  • Elaborate
  • Note picture
  • Change in approach to science
  • Experiment-based, not just observation
  • Inventions and improvements result
chpt 1
Chpt. 1: 巴洛克音樂
  • Opera: a play with speaking parts sung
  • Period begins with rise of Opera
  • Period ends with death of J. S. Bach
  • The two giants: Bach & Handel
  • Other important composers:
  • Claudio Monteverdi
  • Henry PurcelL
  • Arcangelo Corelli
  • Antonio Vivaldi
  • Period divided into 3 phases:
  • Early:
  • 1600-1640
  • Middle:
  • 1640-1680
  • Late:
  • 1680-1750
slide5

Chpt. 1-Baroque Music

巴洛克音樂的特色

  • 一首音樂曲或一個樂章中通常僅傳達一種表情
  • 表情上的一致性
  • 節奏
  • 節奏常常重複於整個樂曲中
  • 旋律
  • 一首樂曲開始的旋律在曲子進行時,會反覆地呈現。
  • Continuous expanding of melodic sequence
  • 力度
  • 音量的大小在樂曲中也常在不同樂段,維持其一貫性。表情需變化時,常以迅速的方式轉換。
slide6

Chpt. 1-Baroque Music

巴洛克音樂的特色

  • 主曲調音樂monody與多聲部音樂織體交替使用
  • 織體
  • 和絃與數字低音
  • 和絃變得非常重要
  • Bass part considered foundation of the harmony
  • Basso Continuo: bass part with numbers to represent chord tones
  • Similar to modern jazz & pop “fake book” notation
  • Words and Music
  • Text painting/word painting continues
  • Words frequently emphasized by extension through many rapid notes
slide7

Chpt. 1-Baroque Music

巴洛克時期的樂團

  • Based on violin family of instruments
  • Small by modern standards
  • Varying instrumentation
  • Strings, woodwinds, brass, & percussion
  • Nucleus was basso continuo unit
  • Composers specified instrumentation
  • Timbre was subordinate to melody, rhythm, & harmony
slide8

Chpt. 1-Baroque Music

巴洛克時期的樂曲形式

  • Instrumental music frequently made up of movements
  • 樂章(Movement): 是指大作品的一部份,完整與獨立性的一首曲子。
  • Performed with pause between movements
  • Unity of mood within individual movements
  • Movements often contrast with each other
  • Common basic forms:
  • Ternary
  • A B A
  • Binary
  • A B
  • A A B
  • A B B
  • A A B B
chpt 2
Chpt. 2: 音樂在巴洛克時期的社會地位
  • Music written to order
  • New music, not old-fashioned, was desired
  • Courts:
  • Music indicated affluence
  • Court Music Director
  • Good prestige, pay, and other benefits
    • Still considered a skilled servant
chpt 21
Chpt. 2:音樂在巴洛克時期的社會地位
  • Some aristocrats were musicians
  • Church music was very elaborate
  • Most people heard music only in church
  • Some, though few, public opera houses
  • Music careers taught by apprenticeship
  • Orphanages taught music as a trade
chpt 6
Chpt. 6: 巴洛克時期的歌劇
  • Euridice 《尤麗蒂切》是目前保存最早的歌劇 (Peri-1600)
  • Camerata在佛羅倫斯聚會討論音樂的結果
  • Orfeo 《奧菲歐》1607年Monteverdi創作了第一齣大型的歌劇
  • 巴洛克歌劇是為了皇室慶典而創作
  • 展示其富麗堂皇
  • 貴族資助者自比為希臘與羅馬的英雄及神
  • 第一所大眾歌劇院於1637在威尼斯開幕
  • 巴洛克歌劇標示著偉大歌唱家的崛起
  • 「乾的朗誦調」(Secco recitative);樂團「有伴奏的朗誦調」(accompanied recitative)
chpt 5
Chpt. 5: 歌劇的要素
  • 用唱的戲劇, 通常以管絃樂伴奏
  • 歌劇的文字稱劇本(libretto)
  • 歌詞通常是由劇作家(librettist)先寫出
  • 音樂部分則是由作曲家所寫
  • 歌劇的性質可以是具有喜劇性或嚴肅性
  • 歌劇演唱(獨唱)方式主要分兩種:
  • 朗誦調(Recitative): presents plot material
  • 詠唱調(Aria): expresses emotion—usually a “show-off” vehicle for the singer
  • 之外還二重唱、三重唱……到六重唱等
  • Three or more singers make up an ensemble
chpt 51
Chpt. 5:歌劇的要素
  • 合唱(Chorus): 合唱團成員所扮演的角色可能是羣眾
  • 提示台詞者(prompter)—必須為提示台詞裝置設備
  • 樂團在的位置是在舞台正下方的凹陷區域
  • 序曲(overture)或前奏曲(prelude): 歌劇開始表演時由樂團演奏一段音樂
  • 現代對於歌劇歌詞的問題
  • 歌劇可否經過翻譯後再演出
  • 字幕(Supertitles)被投映於舞台上
claudio monteverdi1
Claudio Monteverdi(蒙台威爾第)
  • 義大利巴洛克時期的作曲家
  • 創作了最早的歌劇傑作 奧菲歐 Orfeo;奧費斯 (Orpheus )
  • 威尼斯聖馬克(St. Mark’s)教堂樂師30年
  • 創作聖樂也為貴族們創作世俗樂
  • 創作的12齣歌劇只留下3齣
listening

Chpt. 7-Claudio Monteverdi

Listening

朗誦調:<你已死亡>(Tu Se’ Morta)

  • Note: Homophonic texture
  • Use of text painting
  • Listening Guide p. 116
  • Brief Set, CD 1:68
henry purcell and dido and aeneas
Henry Purcell (普賽爾) and Dido and Aeneas
  • 英國最偉大的作曲家(1659-1695)
  • 才華出眾,榮登眾重要的音樂職位
  • 早逝歿,埋葬於西敏寺之風琴下
  • Dido and Aeneas 《黛朵和阿尼亞斯》(1689)

基礎低音(Ground Bass)

  • 在低音部的音樂主題一再地重複的主題
    • 變奏形式
  • 即稱為頑固低音(basso ostinato)
listening1

Chpt. 8-Henry Purcell

Listening

<Dido的悲歌>(Dido’s Lament) from Dido and Aeneasby Purcell

  • Note: Recitative followed by aria
  • Aria makes use of ground bass
  • Listening Guide p. 152
  • Brief Set, CD 1:69
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