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Conducting Ethical Research. Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley. Passer Chapter 3. Codes of Research Ethics. What is/are ethics? Ethical concerns permeate every aspect of the research process. Name and describe a historical event that influenced contemporary research ethics codes. 4.

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conducting ethical research

Conducting EthicalResearch

Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley

Passer Chapter 3

codes of research ethics
Codes of Research Ethics

What is/are ethics?

Ethical concerns permeate every aspect of the research process.

Name and describe a historical event that influenced contemporary research ethics codes.

4

the nuremberg code 1947
The Nuremberg Code (1947)
  • Set of ethical principles essential for medical experiments to be “permissible” (also applies to behavioral research)
  • Voluntary consent with freedom to withdraw at any time
  • Information prior to giving consent about research purpose and potential risks
  • Avoidance of unnecessary risk
  • Results should be of sufficient value to outweigh risks to participants
  • Qualified scientists must conduct the research
the belmont report 1979
The Belmont Report (1979)
  • Respect
  • Beneficence
  • Justice

Concerns for these ethical principles govern participant selection, consent, and risk-benefit assessment.

4

apa ethics code 2010
APA Ethics Code (2010)
  • Beneficence and nonmaleficence (huh?)
  • Fidelity and responsibility
  • Integrity
  • Justice
  • Respect

How does each principle apply to the

conduction of psychological science?

institutional review the irb
Institutional Review: The IRB
  • Who sits on your institution’s IRB?
  • How does your IRB assess the degree of risk to participants?
  • What’s the difference between anonymity and confidentiality?

4

the irb
The IRB

Exempt

Expedited

Full Review

Describe each form of IRB review.

types of harm
Types of Harm

Considered in judging degree of risk to participants

  • Physical harm (e.g., pain)
  • Psychological harm (e.g., anxiety)
  • Social harm and loss of privacy (e.g., sensitive information disclosed)
  • Economic or legal harm (e.g., accident after research-induced sleep deprivation)
excerpt of sample informed consent
Excerpt of Sample Informed Consent
  • I have been fully informed of the above-described procedure with its possible benefits and risks. I understand that I may view my responses at a later date and be fully de-briefed on them if I so desire. I also understand that my responses will be maintained in a confidential manner by the researcher. I voluntarily give permission for my participation in this study. I know that the investigator and her associates will be available to answer any questions I may have. I understand that I am free to withdraw this consent and discontinue participation in this project at any time without penalty. I am also aware that I will receive a copy of this Informed Consent form for my records at this time.
  • Participant Signature ________________________________________

4

informed consent
Informed Consent

What other elements must be reflected in an informed consent?

Is informed consent absolutely necessary?

4

informed consent1
Informed Consent

How does assent come into play when working with vulnerable populations?

4

deception
Deception
  • Passive deception: Researchers withhold info that might influence participants’ decision to provide informed consent
  • Active deception: Researchers mislead participants about some aspect of a study
  • If participants receive bogus negative feedback about their task performance, what sort of deception is this? Is it justifiable?
deception1
Deception
  • How was deception employed in Milgram’s (1963, 1974) obedience studies?

Identify the

confederate(s)

debriefing
Debriefing

What are the elements of a

thorough debriefing?

Thanks.

Bye now.

nonhuman animal research
Nonhuman Animal Research
  • Why is psychological research conducted on animals?
  • Animal Welfare Act regulates use of warm-blooded animals with exception of mice, rats, and birds
institutional review the irb1
Institutional Review: The IRB
  • Who sits on your institution’s IACUC?
  • Ethical standards for animal research revolve around
    • Reduction
    • Refinement
    • Replacement

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

4

tell your story with integrity
Tell Your Story with Integrity
  • Represent yourself accurately
  • Report results ethically
    • Fabrication and falsification are FRAUD
    • …and what about questionable research practices (QRPs)?

Should data stay

or go?

tell your story with integrity1
Tell Your Story with Integrity
  • Does an idea belong to you, or did it originate with someone else?
  • Did you know it’s possible to plagiarize yourself?
  • Paraphrase and cite with care!
slide20

When it comes to research ethics, there are many shades of grey…

  • Ask critical questions. Seek advice from trusted teachers and mentors. You’re not in this alone!
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