Conducting ethical research
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Conducting Ethical Research. Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley. Passer Chapter 3. Codes of Research Ethics. What is/are ethics? Ethical concerns permeate every aspect of the research process. Name and describe a historical event that influenced contemporary research ethics codes. 4.

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Conducting Ethical Research

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Conducting ethical research

Conducting EthicalResearch

Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley

Passer Chapter 3


Codes of research ethics

Codes of Research Ethics

What is/are ethics?

Ethical concerns permeate every aspect of the research process.

Name and describe a historical event that influenced contemporary research ethics codes.

4


The nuremberg code 1947

The Nuremberg Code (1947)

  • Set of ethical principles essential for medical experiments to be “permissible” (also applies to behavioral research)

  • Voluntary consent with freedom to withdraw at any time

  • Information prior to giving consent about research purpose and potential risks

  • Avoidance of unnecessary risk

  • Results should be of sufficient value to outweigh risks to participants

  • Qualified scientists must conduct the research


The belmont report 1979

The Belmont Report (1979)

  • Respect

  • Beneficence

  • Justice

    Concerns for these ethical principles govern participant selection, consent, and risk-benefit assessment.

4


Apa ethics code 2010

APA Ethics Code (2010)

  • Beneficence and nonmaleficence (huh?)

  • Fidelity and responsibility

  • Integrity

  • Justice

  • Respect

    How does each principle apply to the

    conduction of psychological science?


Institutional review the irb

Institutional Review: The IRB

  • Who sits on your institution’s IRB?

  • How does your IRB assess the degree of risk to participants?

  • What’s the difference between anonymity and confidentiality?

4


The irb

The IRB

Exempt

Expedited

Full Review

Describe each form of IRB review.


Types of harm

Types of Harm

Considered in judging degree of risk to participants

  • Physical harm (e.g., pain)

  • Psychological harm (e.g., anxiety)

  • Social harm and loss of privacy (e.g., sensitive information disclosed)

  • Economic or legal harm (e.g., accident after research-induced sleep deprivation)


Excerpt of sample informed consent

Excerpt of Sample Informed Consent

  • I have been fully informed of the above-described procedure with its possible benefits and risks. I understand that I may view my responses at a later date and be fully de-briefed on them if I so desire. I also understand that my responses will be maintained in a confidential manner by the researcher. I voluntarily give permission for my participation in this study. I know that the investigator and her associates will be available to answer any questions I may have. I understand that I am free to withdraw this consent and discontinue participation in this project at any time without penalty. I am also aware that I will receive a copy of this Informed Consent form for my records at this time.

  • Participant Signature ________________________________________

4


Informed consent

Informed Consent

What other elements must be reflected in an informed consent?

Is informed consent absolutely necessary?

4


Informed consent1

Informed Consent

How does assent come into play when working with vulnerable populations?

4


Deception

Deception

  • Passive deception: Researchers withhold info that might influence participants’ decision to provide informed consent

  • Active deception: Researchers mislead participants about some aspect of a study

  • If participants receive bogus negative feedback about their task performance, what sort of deception is this? Is it justifiable?


Deception1

Deception

  • How was deception employed in Milgram’s (1963, 1974) obedience studies?

Identify the

confederate(s)


Debriefing

Debriefing

What are the elements of a

thorough debriefing?

Thanks.

Bye now.


Nonhuman animal research

Nonhuman Animal Research

  • Why is psychological research conducted on animals?

  • Animal Welfare Act regulates use of warm-blooded animals with exception of mice, rats, and birds


Institutional review the irb1

Institutional Review: The IRB

  • Who sits on your institution’s IACUC?

  • Ethical standards for animal research revolve around

    • Reduction

    • Refinement

    • Replacement

      Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

4


Tell your story with integrity

Tell Your Story with Integrity

  • Represent yourself accurately

  • Report results ethically

    • Fabrication and falsification are FRAUD

    • …and what about questionable research practices (QRPs)?

Should data stay

or go?


Tell your story with integrity1

Tell Your Story with Integrity

  • Does an idea belong to you, or did it originate with someone else?

  • Did you know it’s possible to plagiarize yourself?

  • Paraphrase and cite with care!


Conducting ethical research

  • When it comes to research ethics, there are many shades of grey…

  • Ask critical questions. Seek advice from trusted teachers and mentors. You’re not in this alone!


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