Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs
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Research and Development to Meet Urban Weather and Climate Needs. Dr. Richard D. Rosen NOAA Research September 23, 2004 Presentation at “Challenges in Urban Meteorology: Forum for Users and Providers”, Rockville, MD. Why Urban Meteorology Now?. Technological Advances

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Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs

Research and Developmentto Meet UrbanWeather and Climate Needs

Dr. Richard D. Rosen

NOAA Research

September 23, 2004

Presentation at “Challenges in Urban Meteorology: Forum for Users and Providers”, Rockville, MD


Why urban meteorology now

Why Urban Meteorology Now?

  • Technological Advances

    • Remote sensing and other platforms

    • Computer models

  • Homeland Security

    • Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion (ATD) models

  • Health and Safety

    • Air quality

    • High impact weather


Technological advances

Technological Advances

NOAA is working toward an integrated observing system to take into account a myriad of observational data and optimize their use.

  • Satellite data

  • Climate Reference Network

  • UrbaNet – New York/Washington

  • Private sector ‘Weather Nets’

  • In situ observations

  • Buoys


Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs

Dust Storm Pushing Air Pollution

China

Air Pollution

China

Korea

Japan

Dust and Air Pollution Flowing Out of China Destined for the United States (April 2001)


Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs

Initial UrbaNet Met Site: DOC (Hoover) Building

Data Collected:

3-D Wind Vectors

Temperature

Pressure

Relative Humidity

Solar Radiation

Data are collected in one minute intervals and the summaries are transferred every 15 minutes.


Urbanet washington dc noaa coordinated effort with army doe dtra

UrbaNet - Washington, DC(NOAA coordinated effort with Army, DOE, DTRA)

The 12 Yellow squares are currently operating sites.

The additional 12 Green squares are planned sites as funding permits


Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs

UrbaNet displays a well-known feature -- standard airport data are not appropriate for downtown dispersion applications.


Homeland security

Homeland Security

Model of Lower Manhattan at NOAA’s Air Resources and EPA wind tunnel facility, at Research Triangle Park, N.C.


Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs

HYSPLIT-Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated

Trajectory model

The red dots show trajectory end points at hourly intervals.

At small scales, UrbaNet data are now being assimilated.


Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs

  • The inclusion of UrbaNet data can have a significant impact.

  • Prediction based on

    12 km Eta alone.

  • Prediction based on

    12 km Eta but nudged towards UrbaNet data.

    1000 am July 23, 2004


Homeland security1

Homeland Security

Support a system to orderly evacuate cities during hazardous events.


Health and safety

Health and Safety

Air Quality Program

Scientific Advice for Decision-Makers

Regional Assessments discover key atmospheric processes that contribute to poor air quality

Houston: refinery emissions

New England: nocturnal chemistry

Air Quality Forecasting

Operational implementation for ozone initially, then particulate matter and others


Research and development to meet urban weather and climate needs

New England

2002, 2004

Ohio River Valley

Lake Michigan

Mid Atlantic

Central California

Southern California

Southeast

1995, 1999

East Texas

2000,2006

Areas with the Most Serious* Air Quality Problems

Chemically and Meteorologically Diverse

*Designated by EPA as “serious”, “extreme”, or “severe” for ozone and/or PM


National air quality forecasting planned capabilities

National Air Quality ForecastingPlanned Capabilities

  • Initial: 1-day forecast guidance for ozone

    • Develop and deploy in Northeast by 9 / 2004

    • Deploy nationwide within 5 years

  • Intermediate (5-7 years):

    • Develop and test capability to forecast particulate matter concentration

  • Longer range (within 10 years):

    • Extend air quality forecast range to 48-72 hours

    • Include broader range of significant pollutants


Health and safety1

Health and Safety

Urban areas are especially vulnerable to high impact weather, because of the concentration of lives and property.

  • Hurricanes – destructive winds and storm surge

  • Severe thunderstorms and tornadoes - affect trees, power lines, and buildings

  • Heat waves – direct cause of more deaths than all other weather conditions combined

  • Winter weather – impacts on transportation and utility infrastructure


Heat waves

Heat Waves


High impact weather

High Impact Weather

U.S. Hazards Assessment


Summary

Summary

  • Need for an urban focus was magnified by 9/11 attacks, but longstanding issues regarding health and safety continue to demand attention

  • New observing systems and improved models point the way forward for research

  • Complexity of urban meteorology issues demands that NOAA partner with broader community to advance research and development


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