Carolus linnaeus late 18thc
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Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC. Species Plantarum 1753 Systems Naturae 1767 - (24) major categories of plants (Divisions) - (23) vascular ( Phanerogams ); - (1) non-vascular & vascular ( Cryptogams ). K: Plantae - Ordovician - Non-vascular - Silurian - Vascular.

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Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC

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Carolus linnaeus late 18thc

Carolus Linnaeus - late 18thC

Species Plantarum 1753

Systems Naturae 1767

- (24) major categories of plants (Divisions)

- (23) vascular (Phanerogams);

- (1) non-vascular & vascular (Cryptogams)


K plantae ordovician non vascular silurian vascular

K: Plantae - Ordovician - Non-vascular - Silurian - Vascular


Continental positions during early plant evolution

Continental Positions During Early Plant Evolution


Vascular plants the tracheophytes

Vascular Plants - The Tracheophytes

  • 1. Have specialized cell type for conducting water - tracheids (early xylem tissue). Also has specialized cell type for conducting sugar - seive cells (phloem tissue).

  • 2. Lignin in xylem for rigid structural support.

  • 3. A branching, independent sporophyte.


Vascular plants the tracheophytes1

Vascular Plants - The Tracheophytes


Vascular plants the tracheophytes 300 mya

Vascular Plants - The Tracheophytes(300 mya)

  • Non-seed Tracheophytes - haploid & diploid generations totally independent

  • - spores most prominent resting state


Rhyniophyta the earliest tracheophytes extinct by devonian period 400 mya

Rhyniophyta - the earliest Tracheophytes(extinct by Devonian Period 400 mya)

  • 1. Simple vascular system (xylem &

  • phloem) in stem.

  • 2. “Leaves” flattened scales - no

  • vascular tissue.

  • 3. No roots - but rhizomes.

  • 4. Dichotomous stem branching.

  • 5. Aerial branches and sporangia at

  • branch tips.

  • 6. Spores were in groups of four (?)

  • tetrads - indicate meiosis

  • plant body - a sporophyte (2n)

  • spores - (n) ---> gameophyte (n)-->

  • sexual reproduction--> sporophyte (2n)

  • (fossil)


Lignier s hypothesis 1903 how roots evolved from stems

Lignier’s Hypothesis (1903)How Roots Evolved from Stems

  • ancestoral form --->


Evolution of leaves

Evolution of Leaves

  • Leaf - a flattened photosynthetic structure emerging from the stem and possessing true vascular tissue.

  • Probably evolved from sterile sporangia.


Evolution of leaves1

Evolution of Leaves

  • Leaf - a flattened photosynthetic structure emerging from the stem and possessing true vascular tissue.

  • Complex leaves arose as photosynthetic tissue developed between complex branching patterns


Homospory the most primitive spore process

HomosporyThe Most Primitive Spore Process

  • one type of spore; one type of gametophyte


Heterospory the most advanced spore process

HeterosporyThe Most Advanced Spore Process

  • two types of spores; two types of gametophytes

  • heterospory probably evloved several times


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • 1. Leaves small and sessile; no ligule

  • at base.

  • 2. Stems with aerial branches and

  • rhizomes; dichotomous branching.

  • 3. Branch roots originate deep within

  • main root.

  • 4. Mainly perennial.

  • 5. Low growing in temperate forest or

  • epiphyte in Tropical forest.

  • 6. Homosporous or Hetersporous


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines1

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • Plectostele - dissected xylem

  • with phloem branches in

  • between.

    • Xylem - all tracheids.

    • Phloem - all seive cells

  • Epidermis - contains stomata.


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines2

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • Plectostele -

  • Always a layer of parenchyma cells between xylem and phloem.


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines3

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • Plectostele - dissected xylem

  • with phloem branches in

  • between.

    • Xylem - all tracheids.

    • Phloem - all seive cells

    • mucilaginous canal

  • Epidermis - contains stomata.

  • ExarchStele -


Stomata

stomata


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines4

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • A. ExarchStele -

  • B. MesarchStele

  • C. EndarchStele


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines5

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • Sexual Reproduction:

  • sporophyte (2n) ---- meiosis ---->

  • ------> spores (n) --> gametophyte (n) --> antheridia (n) & archegonia (n)

  • antheridium ----> sperms (n)

  • -- fertilization --> zygote (2n) --> sporophyte (2n)

  • Archegonium ----> egg (n)


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines6

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • Sexual Reproduction:

  • sporophyte (2n) ---- meiosis ---->

  • ------> spores (n) --> gametophyte (n) --> antheridia (n) & archegonia (n)

  • (homospores)

  • antheridium ----> sperms (n)

  • -- fertilization --> zygote (2n) --> sporophyte (2n)

  • Archegonium ----> egg (n)


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines7

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines8

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • strobilus (2n) -

  • stem with short

  • internodes and fertile

  • appendages

  • sporophyll (2n)

  • sporangium (2n)

  • spores (n)

  • l


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines9

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • sporophyll & sporangium

  • adaxial view


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines10

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”


K plantae div lycophyta g lycopodium ground pines11

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Lycopodium “ground pines”

  • gemmae or bulbils (2n)

  • (asexual reproduction)

  • axial sporophylls

  • g


K plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”

  • 1. Herbaceous: perennial.

  • 2. Ligulate* leaves; microphyllous; spirally or alternately arranged.

  • 3. Abundant branching.

  • 4. Some vessels* in xylem.

  • g


K plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses1

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”

  • 1. Herbaceous: perennial.

  • 2. Ligulate*leaves; microphyllous; spirally or alternately arranged.

  • 3. Abundant branching.

  • 4. Some vessels* in xylem.

  • 5. Strobilus composed of sporophylls each bearing a single sporangium

  • on the adaxial surface.

  • 6. Heterosporous* reproduction.

  • g


K plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses2

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”

  • 6. Heterosporous* reproduction.

  • Strobilus (2n) --> microsporophylls (2n) --> microsporangium (2n) -->

  • megasporophylls (2n) --> megasporangium (2n) -->

  • meiosis

  • microsporangium (2n) --> microsporocytes (2n) ---------------> microspores (n)

  • megasporangium (2n) --> (4) megasporocytes (2n) ----------> (4) megaspores (n)

  • g


K plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses3

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”

  • meiosis

  • microsporangium (2n) --> microsporocytes (2n) ---------------> microspores (n)

  • megasporangium (2n) --> (4) megasporocytes (2n) ----------> (4) megaspores (n)

  • --> microspores (n) --> male gametophytes (n), antheridium --> sperms (n)

  • --> (4) megaspores (n) --> female gametophytes (n), archegonium --> egg (n)

  • dioecious

  • triradiate

  • walls -->

  • g


K plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses4

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”

  • fertilization - -> zygote (2n) --> adult sporophyte (2n)


K plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses5

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”

  • fertilization - -> zygote (2n) --> adult sporophyte (2n)


K plantae div lycophyta g selaginella spike mosses6

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Selaginella “spike mosses”

  • g


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • Mainly aquatic or amphibious


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts1

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.

  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.

  • Lacunae --->


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts2

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.

  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.

  • 2. Each leaf has 4 lacunae; stomata in epidermis.

  • 3. Some seive cells lack nucleus *at maturity - plasmodesmata with adjacent

  • cells.


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts3

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.

  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.

  • 2. Each leaf has 4 lacunae; stomata in epidermis.

  • 3. Some seive cells lack nucleus at maturity - plasmodesmata with adjacent

  • cells.

  • 4. Stem and root protostelic:


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts4

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • 1. Quill-like leaves spirally attached to a corm; microphyllus and ligulate.

  • Corm - thickened underground stem. Nodes very close together.

  • 2. Each leaf has 4 lacunae; stomata in epidermis. *

  • 3. Some seive cells lack nucleus at maturity - plasmodesmata with adjacent

  • cells.

  • 4. Stem and root protostelic.

  • 5. Xylem consists of large numbers of parenchyma cells with few tracheids. *

  • 6. Delicate roots grow from base of corm (rhizophores); stele bound by

  • well defined endodermis*; have root caps.


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts5

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • 7. Heterosporous.

  • 8. Every leaf of Isoetes is potential a sporophyll; per season -

  • sterile leaves 1st; then megasporophylls; then microsporophylls.

  • --> 1 million microspores; 50 - -> 300 megaspores.


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts6

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • Reproduction:

  • meiosis

  • microsporangium (2n) -----------> microspores (n)

  • megasporangium (2n) ----------> megaspores (n)


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts7

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • Sporangium massive > 7mm.

  • Velum - covering over sporangium.

  • Trabecula - strands of sterile tissue extending from the sporangial wall.

  • Tapetum - innermost layer of the sporangial wall. Indistinguishable.


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts8

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • meiosis (all spores set free)

  • microsporangium (2n) ---------> microspores (n) --> male gametophyte (n)

  • megasporangium (2n) --------> megaspores (n) --> female gametophyte (n)

  • male gametophyte (n) --> antheridium (4 sperms) multiflatelated

  • female gametophyte (n) --> archegonium (1 egg)

  • *further reduction of

  • gametophyte!*

  • colorless, saprophytic


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts9

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • male gametophyte (n) --> antheridium (4 sperms)

  • female gametophyte (n) --> archegonium (1 egg)

  • *further reduction of

  • gametophyte!*

  • colorless, saprophytic

  • no suspensor

  • 1 embryo develops

  • from each gametophyte


K plantae div lycophyta g isoetes quillworts10

K: Plantae Div: LycophytaG: Isoetes “quillworts”

  • No suspensor; delayed development

  • of the stem.


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