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Results from development of Glass RPCs for INO detector. B.Satyanarayana (For INO Collaboration) TIFR, Mumbai. Plan of the presentation. Introduction Principle of operation of a glass RPC Overview of the field Our prototype designs and fabrication RPC gas mixtures and gas system

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Results from development of Glass RPCs for INO detector

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Results from development of glass rpcs for ino detector

Results from development ofGlass RPCs for INO detector

B.Satyanarayana

(For INO Collaboration)

TIFR, Mumbai

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Plan of the presentation

Plan of the presentation

  • Introduction

  • Principle of operation of a glass RPC

  • Overview of the field

  • Our prototype designs and fabrication

  • RPC gas mixtures and gas system

  • Cosmic ray muon telescope

  • Data acquisition system

  • Preliminary results

  • RPC aging problem

  • Future work plan

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Introduction

Introduction

  • Neutrinos are one of the fundamental particles of matter.

  • Electrically neutral and were initially thought to be mass less.

  • Three types or flavors (ne,nm,nt) of neutrinos known.

  • Recent evidence indicates that neutrinos have mass and also experience mixing among these flavors.

  • Neutrino oscillations can explain the discrepancy between theory and observations about its flux; can be used to estimate its mass.

  • Pioneering experiments at the KGF underground laboratories.

  • Formation of Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration.

  • Feasibility studies for setting up of a neutrino experiment in India is in progress.

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Proposed ino detector

Proposed INO detector

  • RPC dimension: 3m X 2m

  • No of chambers: 11K

  • No of channels: 220K

  • No of TDC channels: 3K

Magnetised iron calorimeter

Iron

140 layers

RPC

35KTons

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Principle of operation of a rpc

Principle of operation of a RPC

V-I model

Each discharge locally deadens the RPC. The recovery time is approximately

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Our prototype designs single gap

Our prototype designs: Single gap

Gas inlet

Two versions

Graphite coat

Spacer

Gas outlet

HV terminals

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Our prototype designs double gap

Our prototype designs: Double gap

Double gap RPC for better detection efficiencies

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Jigs for rpc fabrication

Jigs for RPC fabrication

Glass handlers

Resistivity measurement jig

Glue and dispensers

RPC fabrication jig

A finished small area RPC

A glued RPC

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Gas mixing and flow control unit

Gas mixing and flow control unit

Flow monitor

Gas mixing unit

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Schematic of cosmic ray muon trigger

Schematic of Cosmic ray muon trigger

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Cosmic ray muon telescope setup

Cosmic ray muon telescope setup

Mounting structure for flexible and precise telescope alignment

Paddle alignment detail

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Schematic of data acquisition system

Schematic of data acquisition system

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Data acquisition system electronics

Data acquisition system electronics

CAMAC

NIM

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


V i characteristics

V-I characteristics

Small RPC

Large RPC

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Typical rpc pulse profile

Typical RPC pulse profile

RPC pulse

Muon trigger

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Noise rate and efficiencies

Noise rate and efficiencies

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Charge performance

Charge performance

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Timing performance

Timing performance

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Charge time linearity

Charge-time linearity

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Rpc aging problem

RPC aging problem

  • Drop in efficiency, increase in noise rate and chamber current seen after a few weeks of continuous operation

  • Reports in the literature (Monolith, Belle etc)

  • Moister contamination in Freon gas, the culprit?

  • Use of SF6 instead of Freon preferred

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Controlled humidity test

Controlled humidity test

Carlo Gustavino et al, LNGS

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Afm images of damaged electrodes

AFM images of damaged electrodes

2 scans

10 scans

Raw glass

Damaged electrodes

Raw glass

Damaged electrodes

  • 500nm structures of 100nm thick seen in the images

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Sem image of damaged electrode

SEM image of damaged electrode

6 scan

2 scan

Raw glass Fluorine: 4%

Damaged electrode Fluorine: 38%

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Future work plan

Future work plan

  • Systematic study of RPC stability problem

  • Fabrication of more large area RPCs and studies

  • Detailed studies on timing, spatial resolution, cross-talk

  • Optimization of detector gas composition

  • INO prototype detector; needs about 16 large area RPCs

  • Performance studies of prototype detector; comparison of results with those from simulation studies

  • RPC Parameter inputs for electronics and data acquisition system design

  • Full pledged RPC device simulations

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Backup slides

Backup slides

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Rpcs of modern designs

RPCs of modern designs

Hybrid RPC

Micro RPC

Multi gap

  • Applications in HEP research

    • Cosmic ray experiments: EAS-Top, Cover-Plastex, Argo, Auger

    • Accelerator based experiments: Belle, Babar, Star, Harp

    • Future experiments: Alice, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb

    • Medical applications etc

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Telescope stability monitoring

Telescope stability monitoring

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Preliminary cross talk measurements

Preliminary cross-talk measurements

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


Recovery of a damaged rpc

Recovery of a damaged RPC

  • Purging with pure Argon at high flow rate.

  • Bubbling pure Argon through pure ethyl alcohol.

  • Bubbling pure Argon through 3% Ammonia solution for 24 hours with high voltage off.

  • Recovers efficiency and brings down noise rate.

XVI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics symposium, SINP, Kolkata, Nov 29 - Dec 3, 2004


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