Chapter 19 reproductive system
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Chapter 19 Reproductive System. Part II. Menstruation Terms. Menses Menarche – beginning of menstrual functions Menopause – normal stopping on menstrual cycles, avg. age is 52 Perimenopause – transition from regular function to menopause. Menstrual cycle. Day 1-5: Menstrual Phase

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Menstruation terms
Menstruation Terms

  • Menses

  • Menarche – beginning of menstrual functions

  • Menopause – normal stopping on menstrual cycles, avg. age is 52

  • Perimenopause – transition from regular function to menopause


Menstrual cycle
Menstrual cycle

  • Day 1-5: Menstrual Phase

    • Endometrial lining is sloughed off

  • Day 6-12: Postmenstrual Phase

    • Estrogen secreted by ovary stimulates the preparation of the lining

    • Pituitary gland secretes FSH, stimulating maturation of a follicle

  • Days 13-14: Ovulatory Phase

  • Days 15-28: Premenstrual Phase

    • No fertilization – breakdown of uterine endometrium


Pathology
PATHOLOGY

  • Penis

    • Balanitis – inflammation of glans penis

    • Phimosis – narrowing of the foreskin

    • Impotence

  • Testicles

    • Anorchism – absence of one or more testicles

    • Cryptorchidism - undescended testis

    • Epididymitis – inflammation of epididymus

    • Testitis or Orchitis


Pathology cont d
Pathology (cont’d)

  • Sperm count

    • Azoospermia (a-without, zoo-life)

    • Oligospermia (olig/o-few)

  • Prostate gland

    • Benign prostatic hypertophy (BPH)

    • Prostate cancer – common cancer, can grow slowly with no symptoms or more aggressively and spread

    • Prostatitis




Treatment procedures
Treatment Procedures cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • Circumcision

  • Orchidectomy

  • Vasectomy

  • Prostatectomy

    • Radical

    • Transurethral


TURP cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.


Std s
STD’s cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • Genital herpes – itching or burning, appearance of lesions, no cure

  • Gonorrhea – bacterial, painful urination, abnormal discharge

  • HIV

  • Human pailloma virus (HPV)

    • Genital warts – highly contagious, increases the risk of cervical cancer

  • Syphilis – bacterial, fatal if not treated


Chlamydia most common std
Chlamydia cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate. (most common STD)

  • Symptoms in women:

    • an unusual vaginal discharge

    • pain when passing urine

    • bleeding between periods

    • pain during sex or bleeding after sex

    • low abdominal pain

  • Symptoms in men:

    • white/cloudy, watery discharge from the tip of the penis

    • pain or a burning sensation when passing urine

    • testicular pain and/or swelling


Syphilis
Syphilis cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.


Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.


Genital warts
Genital Warts cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.


Herpes
Herpes cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.


Trichomonas protozoan
Trichomonas - protozoan cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • Symptoms in women:

    • increased discharge from the vagina, which may be thinner or frothy, yellow/green in colour and have a musty or fishy smell

    • itching, soreness and inflammation in and around the vagina

    • pain when passing urine

    • pain when having sex

  • Symptoms in men:

    • thin, whitish discharge from the tip of the penis, which can stain underwear

    • pain or burning when passing urine


Yeast infections vaginal candidiasis
Yeast Infections cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate. (Vaginal candidiasis)

  • Symptoms in women:

    • soreness, redness and itching around the vulva (lips of the vagina), the vagina and anus

    • thick, white discharge from the vagina that looks like cottage cheese and smells of yeast

    • pain during sex

    • pain passing urine

  • Symptoms in men:

    • burning, itching, redness and red patches under the foreskin or on the tip of the penis

    • thick, cheesy discharge under the foreskin

    • problems pulling back the foreskin

    • pain passing urine


Pathology1
PATHOLOGY cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • OVARIES

    • Anovulation

    • Oophoritis (oophor – ovary)

    • Ovarian cancer

    • PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)

      • Complication of STD, may lead to infertility, etc

    • Salpingitis (salping – fallopian tube)


Cervix
CERVIX cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • Cervical cancer

    • Second most common cancer in women

  • Cervical dysplasia

    • Abnormal growth of cells of the cervix (precancerous)

  • Dysplasia – abnormal tissue development


More disorders
More Disorders cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • Breast

    • Breast cancer

    • Fibrocystic disease

    • Mastitis

  • Menstrual Disoders

    • Amenorrhea (3 months)

    • Hypomenorrhea / Hypermenorrhea


Diagnostic procedures
Diagnostic Procedures cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • Colposcopy (colp/o – vagina) – also cervix

  • Hysteroscopy (hyster/o – uterus)

  • Mammography

  • Papanicolaou test (Pap smear)


Treatments
TREATMENTS cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

  • Oophorectomy

  • Salpingo-oophorectomy (SO)

  • Tubal ligation

  • Colporrhaphy


  • Hysterectomy cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.

    • Vaginal

    • Abdominal

    • Radical – cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries

  • Breasts

    • Mastectomy

    • Mammoplasty

    • Augmentation


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