Chapter 19 reproductive system
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Chapter 19 Reproductive System. Part II. Menstruation Terms. Menses Menarche – beginning of menstrual functions Menopause – normal stopping on menstrual cycles, avg. age is 52 Perimenopause – transition from regular function to menopause. Menstrual cycle. Day 1-5: Menstrual Phase

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Chapter 19 Reproductive System

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Chapter 19 Reproductive System

Part II


Menstruation Terms

  • Menses

  • Menarche – beginning of menstrual functions

  • Menopause – normal stopping on menstrual cycles, avg. age is 52

  • Perimenopause – transition from regular function to menopause


Menstrual cycle

  • Day 1-5: Menstrual Phase

    • Endometrial lining is sloughed off

  • Day 6-12: Postmenstrual Phase

    • Estrogen secreted by ovary stimulates the preparation of the lining

    • Pituitary gland secretes FSH, stimulating maturation of a follicle

  • Days 13-14: Ovulatory Phase

  • Days 15-28: Premenstrual Phase

    • No fertilization – breakdown of uterine endometrium


PATHOLOGY

  • Penis

    • Balanitis – inflammation of glans penis

    • Phimosis – narrowing of the foreskin

    • Impotence

  • Testicles

    • Anorchism – absence of one or more testicles

    • Cryptorchidism - undescended testis

    • Epididymitis – inflammation of epididymus

    • Testitis or Orchitis


Pathology (cont’d)

  • Sperm count

    • Azoospermia (a-without, zoo-life)

    • Oligospermia (olig/o-few)

  • Prostate gland

    • Benign prostatic hypertophy (BPH)

    • Prostate cancer – common cancer, can grow slowly with no symptoms or more aggressively and spread

    • Prostatitis


Prostate Cancer


  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein in the cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells. It can be detected in the blood of all adult men. The PSA level is increased in men with prostate cancer but can also be increased somewhat in other disorders of the prostate.


Treatment Procedures

  • Circumcision

  • Orchidectomy

  • Vasectomy

  • Prostatectomy

    • Radical

    • Transurethral


TURP


STD’s

  • Genital herpes – itching or burning, appearance of lesions, no cure

  • Gonorrhea – bacterial, painful urination, abnormal discharge

  • HIV

  • Human pailloma virus (HPV)

    • Genital warts – highly contagious, increases the risk of cervical cancer

  • Syphilis – bacterial, fatal if not treated


Chlamydia (most common STD)

  • Symptoms in women:

    • an unusual vaginal discharge

    • pain when passing urine

    • bleeding between periods

    • pain during sex or bleeding after sex

    • low abdominal pain

  • Symptoms in men:

    • white/cloudy, watery discharge from the tip of the penis

    • pain or a burning sensation when passing urine

    • testicular pain and/or swelling


Syphilis


Gonorrhea


Genital Warts


Herpes


Trichomonas - protozoan

  • Symptoms in women:

    • increased discharge from the vagina, which may be thinner or frothy, yellow/green in colour and have a musty or fishy smell

    • itching, soreness and inflammation in and around the vagina

    • pain when passing urine

    • pain when having sex

  • Symptoms in men:

    • thin, whitish discharge from the tip of the penis, which can stain underwear

    • pain or burning when passing urine


Yeast Infections (Vaginal candidiasis)

  • Symptoms in women:

    • soreness, redness and itching around the vulva (lips of the vagina), the vagina and anus

    • thick, white discharge from the vagina that looks like cottage cheese and smells of yeast

    • pain during sex

    • pain passing urine

  • Symptoms in men:

    • burning, itching, redness and red patches under the foreskin or on the tip of the penis

    • thick, cheesy discharge under the foreskin

    • problems pulling back the foreskin

    • pain passing urine


PATHOLOGY

  • OVARIES

    • Anovulation

    • Oophoritis (oophor – ovary)

    • Ovarian cancer

    • PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)

      • Complication of STD, may lead to infertility, etc

    • Salpingitis (salping – fallopian tube)


CERVIX

  • Cervical cancer

    • Second most common cancer in women

  • Cervical dysplasia

    • Abnormal growth of cells of the cervix (precancerous)

  • Dysplasia – abnormal tissue development


More Disorders

  • Breast

    • Breast cancer

    • Fibrocystic disease

    • Mastitis

  • Menstrual Disoders

    • Amenorrhea (3 months)

    • Hypomenorrhea / Hypermenorrhea


Diagnostic Procedures

  • Colposcopy (colp/o – vagina) – also cervix

  • Hysteroscopy (hyster/o – uterus)

  • Mammography

  • Papanicolaou test (Pap smear)


TREATMENTS

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

  • Oophorectomy

  • Salpingo-oophorectomy (SO)

  • Tubal ligation

  • Colporrhaphy


  • Hysterectomy

    • Vaginal

    • Abdominal

    • Radical – cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries

  • Breasts

    • Mastectomy

    • Mammoplasty

    • Augmentation


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