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Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence. Sylvia Walby Lancaster University. Introduction. Focus: Indicators and statistics on gender-based violence Just a sub-set of information needs What are the priorities?

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development of indicators and official statistics of gender based violence

Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence

Sylvia Walby

Lancaster University

  • Focus: Indicators and statistics on gender-based violence
    • Just a sub-set of information needs
  • What are the priorities?
  • Contributions of academics, government statisticians, policy makers, NGOs.
national surveys
National surveys
  • Development of large scale national surveys in many countries
  • Many methodological refinements
    • Self-completion, wider range, new scaling
  • Interest in developing comparable national findings through surveys:
    • UN, EU, IVAWS
  • What priorities? Next steps?
domestic violence sexual assault and stalking findings from british crime survey
Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking: Findings from British Crime Survey
  • BCS: under continual development
  • BCS self-completion module, 2001
    • 22,463 sample
    • Self-completion: computer turned to respondent to read and respond confidentially
    • Included domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking
    • Questions to both men and women
bcs self completion methodology
BCS Self-completion methodology
  • Comparing prevalence rate
    • Face-to-face interviewing
    • Self completion
  • Narrow definition DV (non-sexual, no threats)
    • face-to-face interviewing: 0.6%
    • self completion: 2.8%
  • Prevalence five times higher using self-completion methodology than face-to-face interviewing
comparing definitions in bcs self complete
Comparing definitions in BCS self-complete
  • DV Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS):
    • types of actions (e.g. slapped, kicked, choked)
    • frequency of incidents
  • Sexual assault and stalking
  • DV Injuries
    • Whether injured and how seriously
  • Whether victim/survivor saw it as DV
  • Whether victim/survivor saw it as a ‘crime’
cts and prevalence findings
CTS and prevalence findings
  • CTS Prevalence (in the last year)
    • Domestic abuse, threats or force: 5%
    • Domestic threats or force: 4%
    • Domestic force: 3%
  • Beyond CTS
    • Rape or assault by penetration: women: 0.5%
      • 54% of rape by intimate (including former)
  • Injuries
    • Whether women injured in worst incident last year:
    • Some injury: 72%
      • No injury 28%
      • Minor injury 46%
      • Moderate injury 20%
      • Severe injury 6%
victim survivors views
Victim/survivors’ views
  • Whether female victim/survivor saw it as DV
    • One incident, 56%; 4 or more times, 95% (last year)
  • Whether female victim/survivor saw it as a ‘crime’:
    • One incident, 24%; 4 or more, 66% (last year)
    • Injury: none 15%; minor 53%; severe 87% (lifetime)
why indicators
Why Indicators?
  • Simplify and abstract from complex data
  • Relevant to policy making and assessment
  • Provide a clear focus to measure change
    • National Plan; Performance indicators; Public Service Agreements for Comprehensive Spending Review
  • Enable international comparisons
  • Provide a different contribution than complex statistics, qualitative data, personal accounts.
  • Depend on large population surveys
productive tension between specificity and mainstreaming
Productive tension between specificity and mainstreaming
  • Specific nature of gender-based violence and detailed appreciation of distinctive nuances?
  • AND/OR
  • More general categories that facilitate addressing priorities within the mainstream, including crime?
types of indicators
Types of indicators
  • Outcome
    • The amount of gender based violence
  • Policy development and implementation
    • Identifying extent to which policy is implemented on the ground
  • Gender-based violence – UN
  • Domestic violence – HO?
  • Violence against women - WNC
  • Range of Actions
    • domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, FGM, forced marriage, ‘honour’ crimes, trafficking . . .
  • Range of Perpetrators
    • Partner, domestic non-partner, non-domestic?
outcome indicators
Outcome indicators
  • Home Office (2004) DV plan:
    • Domestic homicide
      • Robust, but small proportion of dv
    • Prevalence
      • Rate of domestic violence in the population
        • ‘headcount’
prevalence is it the best indicator
Prevalence: Is it the best indicator?
  • Advantages
    • Uses concept of DV as a ‘course of conduct’
    • Conventional measure among DV experts
  • Disadvantages
    • Hard to translate into crime statistics, which are based on number of ‘incidents’
    • Does not contain measure of severity
    • Specialised, not mainstream, indicator
severity of gender based violence and crime statistics
Severity of gender-based violence and crime statistics
  • Frequency/Incidents
    • Crimes are counted as incidents
    • If dv/gender based violence is to be mainstreamed into crime statistics there needs to be an incident count
  • Injuries
    • Violent crime categories are differentiated primarily by injury level, though also intent
    • To mainstream, injuries need to be known for each incident
prevalence incidents and gender
Prevalence, incidents and gender
  • Use of prevalence rather than incidents reduces the appearance of gender inequality in official statistics
  • Domestic violence prevalence:
    • 4% women, 2% men
  • Average no. incidents of domestic violence:
    • women 20, men 7
  • DV experienced as one incident only:
    • 28% women, 47% men
  • Total incidents DV:
    • 12.9 million against women, 2.4m men
  • Gender ratio prevalence: 2:1
  • Gender ratio incidents: 5:1
prevalence and incidents
Prevalence and incidents
  • Prevalence use of ‘course of conduct’ might mean that a series of 20 incidents may count only as one crime, thereby underestimating the proportion of violent crime that is dv/gender-based violence
  • Prevalence: single events count, thereby skewing the gender composition towards image of symmetry
injuries acts and the cts
Injuries, Acts, and the CTS
  • Conflict Tactics Scale uses ‘actions’ as severity measure
  • Crime Statistics use predominantly ‘injuries’ as severity measure (though also intention)
  • Injuries are more gender asymmetrical than actions
    • Minor force (e.g. slap): 49% women 36% men sustain physical injury
    • Severe force (e.g. choke, weapon): 77% women 56% men sustain physical injury
  • CTS suggests lesser gender inequality than crime categories
  • CTS does not usually include sexual assault
crime categories for indicators
Crime categories for indicators?
  • Crime categories:
    • Use incidents to measure extent
    • Use (primarily) injuries to measure severity
  • Advantages:
    • Mainstreams
    • Show gender dimensions of DV more effectively than CTS and prevalence
data needs
Data needs?
  • Prevalence
  • AND Crime based definitions of incidents, using injuries not acts
  • DV to include full range of actions, including domestic sexual assaults
  • Gender-based violence category to include DV, non-domestic sexual assaults, FGM, ‘honour’ crimes
implications for british crime survey
Implications for British Crime Survey
  • Self-completion important innovation
  • Both prevalence and incidents
  • Collect data additionally within crime categories
    • Name wider range of forms of gender based violence e.g. FGM
    • Collect data on each incident (not worst or last)
    • Injury (and intent)
    • ‘Victim forms’ to be completed on each incident
    • Increase maximum no. forms for each respondent
  • Findings to be integrated into crime count
  • Number of BCS violent crimes will rise
  • DV will appear as a higher % of BCS violent crime
policy performance
Policy Performance
  • Ministries and agencies have roles in reduction of gender-based violence
    • Criminal justice system
    • Health
    • Local authorities
    • Housing and refuges
    • Social services
    • Civil legal services
  • Few have the evidence to assess their performance, rarely knowing how much their services are used for DV
    • Reviewed in Cost of Domestic Violence
service indicators
Service indicators
  • What do we need to know?
    • What outcome and policy indicators?
  • Local authorities
    • New best value indicator includes DV
health developments in recording measuring
Health developments in recording/measuring
  • Screening and diagnostic codes
  • Screening dilemmas
    • Screen when referrals not ready?
    • BCS:
      • Asked cause of injuries: 94%
      • Disclosed cause of injuries: 74%
      • Referred to anyone else: 26%
  • Diagnostic code for DV
    • Primary not secondary code: under development
      • E.g. primary DV; secondary broken wrist
criminal justice system cjs recorded crimes criminal statistics
Criminal Justice System (CJS): recorded crimes, criminal statistics
  • Policy change in CJS and its implications
  • Attrition rate for rape high and rising (Kelly et al)
    • Conviction rate for reported rapes, 5.6% in 2002
  • Recognised need for ‘DV attrition’ rate (HO DV Nat Plan)
    • Rate of reporting to police (compare BCS rate with reported crimes)
    • Recording of reports by police (‘recorded crime’ or ‘domestic incident’)
    • Detection
    • Arrest (currently sole performance measure)
    • Prosecution
    • Completed court case
    • Conviction (criminal statistics)
ho objectives for reducing attrition of dv in cjs in national plan 2004
HO Objectives for reducing attrition of DV in CJS in National Plan 2004
  • Objective 4. Increase the rate at which domestic violence is reported . . . to the police . .
    • BUT No record of number of recorded crimes by police in official statistics for DV
  • Objective 5. Increase the rate at which domestic violence incidents result in sanction/detections . . .
    • BUT No record of DV detections/sanctions in official statistics
  • Objective 6. Increase the rate at which sanction detections are converted into offences/offenders brought to justice .
    • BUT No record of DV criminal convictions in criminal statistics
cjs data requirements
CJS data requirements
  • No recorded crime statistics on domestic violence, since not a specific criminal offence
    • BUT arrest rates for DV are produced, so there is a record of crime by whether domestic; but not public
  • Recommend: relevant recorded crimes are cross-classified as domestic or not as key aspect of recorded crime and criminal statistics
    • Met did this in 1999 (cf Health diagnostic codes)
  • Otherwise impossible to track DV in CJS statistics to evaluate progress on HO objectives
  • Much current development of statistical data and proposals for indicators
    • Nationally and internationally
    • BCS 2001 self-completion produced information on implications of different classifications
  • BCS: further development of outcome indicators
    • Mainstream into crime categories, as well as for specific needs
    • Numbers of incidents and injuries for each, as well as prevalence
    • Both DV and wider range of gender-based violence
  • International standards for EU and global comparisons?
  • Recorded crime and criminal statistics:
    • cross-classify violent crimes by domestic
  • Further development of public services performance indicators