Welcome to general cell biology
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Welcome to General Cell Biology. Study Habits. Find out what works best for YOU Try different methods Combine methods Use shorthand Read the chapter BEFORE lecture and be prepared with any questions Study EVERY day. What is science? To Know.

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Study habits l.jpg
Study Habits

  • Find out what works best for YOU

  • Try different methods

    • Combine methods

  • Use shorthand

  • Read the chapter BEFORE lecture and be prepared with any questions

  • Study EVERY day


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What is science?To Know

The Goal of Science1) deals only with the natural world2) to collect and organize information3) propose explanations that can be tested

Seeks natural causes to phenomenon

Therefore limited to things that we can OBSERVE and MEASURE


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What is science?To Know

  • Explanatory

  • Testable

  • Reproducible

  • Predictive

  • Tentative


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What is Biology

Study of life

Encompasses

Ethology

Evolutionary Biology

Physiology

Genetics

Molecular Biology

Morphology

Systematics

Ecology

And more…..


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Approaches

Discovery- observational

Uses inductive reasoning

Hypothesis-based- experimental

Uses deductive reasoning


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Hypothesis based science

Hypothesis- a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event

Testable

Tentative relationship is stated

Simple and concise

Falsifiable

Accept or reject


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Inferences, Predictions & Hypotheses

  • Inferences are a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience

  • Predictions “guess” what will happen

  • Hypothesis presents a relationship, which attempts to explains what will happen

    • Specific, testable prediction about what will happen


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Language of a hypothesis

  • Contain the dependent and independent variables

    • If leaf color change is affected by (related to) temperature , then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color.


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Language of a hypothesis

Most commonly, hypotheses take three formats:

  • a question, "Does temperature affect fermentation?"

  • a conditional statement, "Temperature may affect fermentation."

  • an If, then statement, "If fermentation rate is related to temperature, then increasing the temperature will increase gas production.


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Examples

  • If the diffusion rate (dependent variable) through a membrane is related to molecular size, (independent variable) then the smaller the molecule the faster it will pass through a membrane.

  • If the rate of photosynthesisis related to wave lengths of light, then exposing a plant to different colors of light will produce different amounts of oxygen.


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Scientific method

Observation

Question

Hypothesis

Experimentation

Controlled

Replication

Analysis of results

Evaluate hypothesis

0


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Why do I care about Hypothesis testing and scientific method?

Used in every day life and decision making

Ex: Medical- use scientific method to determine cause of patients ailment

Understand the world around us


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Scientific Theory method?

  • Explanation of something that has been substantiated by a large amount of data collected over multiple experiments

  • Best possible explanation at the time based on experiments and available data

  • Can be altered, revised, adapted or simply abandoned as new data becomes available


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Reasoning method?

Inductive- Extrapolate general principles from specific examples

A conclusion is arrived at based on a set of observations

Deductive- Extrapolate specific conclusions from general principles

If A then B


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Reasoning method?

Inductive

All observed crows are black.

Therefore:

All crows are black.

Deductive

All men are mortal

Socrates is a man

Therefore, Socrates is mortal


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Experiments & Theories method?

Experiments & hypotheses only test NEVER prove theories

The very next experiment may falsify theory

Always falsify a hypothesis, not prove it

0


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Controls & Variables method?

  • Independent- single manipulated variable

  • Dependent- thing that is measured, counted or observed. Changes in response to independent

  • Controlled variables- things that are kept constant


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Groups method?

  • Experimental- group that is exposed to the independent variable

  • Control group- group that is exposed to everything BUT the independent variable


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Spontaneous Generation method?

Redi’s blowfly experiment

Living things arrive from lifeless matter

Air had a “life force”

Rotting meat, when left, produced flies

Therefore, flies come from rotten meat


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Spontaneous Generation method?

Observation- Flies spontaneously appear on rotting meat

Question- Does rotting meat produce flies?

Hypothesis- If rotting meat is related to the creation of flies then any flask with rotten meat will produce flies

Prediction- A flask of rotting meat will produce flies in 21 days

Experimentation- 3 jars of meat were subjected to being open, semi-sealed with parchment paper or sealed while other variables remained identical


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Analysis of results- method?No flies were present in closed jars, semi-closed jars had fly eggs on the parchment, open jars contained flies

Evaluate hypothesis against results-Reject hypothesis as sealed jars did not produce flies and semi-sealed jars had fly eggs on the parchment paper

©Barrons 2009



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In-class Exercise method?

Get into groups

Each group identify a scientific question, hypothesis and experimental outcome for each scenario

Don’t worry about figuring out an experiment, just make up the results of one

Decide if your outcome supports or refutes your hypothesis


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Scenario 1-While hiking in the forest one day, you notice that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Scenario 2- As a nurse, one of your patients presents with an unusually low temperature, but no other symptoms

Scenario 3-You are fishing out in Puget Sound and find that all the other fishermen are pulling up salmon, but you are catching flounder.


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Data Interpretation that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Data analysis is a body of methods that help to describe facts, detect patterns, develop explanations, and test hypotheses.


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Data Interpretation that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Look At the Data / Think About the Data / Think About the Problem / Ask what it is you Want to Know

Estimate the Central Tendency of the Data

Look at the Exceptions to the Central Tendency (variation)


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Data Interpretation that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

  • Average

    • Sum of numbers / number of numbers

  • Standard Deviation- measure of how variable the data is

  • Sampling error- difference between results from subset of data and the whole

  • Statistically Significant- unlikely to occur by chance


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Data Interpretation that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.


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Organization of Life that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Life’s levels of organization define the scope of biology


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Hierarchical organization that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Organized according to complexity

Emergent properties

Properties that were not present at the previous lower level and result from the specific arrangement and interactions between components

“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”


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Environmental interactions that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs


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Environmental Interactions that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Autotrophs

Organisms that produce organic compounds from inorganic compounds

“Producers”

Heterotrophs

Organisms that obtain nutrients from other organisms

“Consumers”

Decomposers

Decay organic matter, releasing energy back into the ecosystem

Saprobes


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Common features of all living forms that while on the left side of the trail, the frogs are bright green, but on the right, they are a mottled green-brown color.

Order/organization

Regulation

Growth & Development

Energy utilization/processing

Response to the environment

Reproduction

Evolution


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