Spin physics edm searches in storage rings
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 53

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 55 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings. August 14, 2012 Frank Rathmann 5 th GEORGIAN - GERMAN SCHOOL AND WORKSHOP IN BASIC SCIENCE. Topics. Introduction Search for Electric Dipole Moments

Download Presentation

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

SPIN– Physics,EDM searches in Storage Rings

August 14, 2012 Frank Rathmann

5th GEORGIAN - GERMAN SCHOOL AND WORKSHOP

IN BASIC SCIENCE


Topics

Topics

  • Introduction

  • Search forElectric Dipole Moments

  • Spin coherence time

  • First directmeasurement

    Resonance Method with RF E(B)-fields

  • Conclusion

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Introduction structure of matter

Introduction: Structure of Matter

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Introduction four interactions forces

Introduction: Four interactions (forces)

Matter consists of fermions, they attract or repel each other by exchanging bosons.

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Introduction standard model of elementary particles

Introduction: Standard model ofelementaryparticles

  • All particles (andtheircorresponding anti-particles) feature

    • mass

    • charge, and

    • spin

The spinvectorof a particleisassociatedwith a magneticmoment,

Fermions

Bosons

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Burning questions http particleadventure org beyond start html

Burningquestionshttp://particleadventure.org/beyond_start.html

  • Why do we observe matter and almost no antimatter if we believe there is a symmetry between the two in the universe?

  • What is this "dark matter" that we can't see that has visible gravitational effects in the cosmos?

  • Why can't the Standard Model predict a particle's mass?

  • Are quarks and leptons actually fundamental, or made up of even more fundamental particles?

  • Why are there exactly three generations of quarks and leptons? How does gravity fit into all of this?

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


What caused the baryon asymmetry

Whatcausedthe Baryon asymmetry?

Carina Nebula: Largest-seen star-birth regions in the galaxy

Whathappenedtothe antimatter?

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Symmetries

Symmetries

Physical laws are invariant under certain transformations.

  • T-Symmetry:

C-parity(or Charge parity):

  • Changessignof all quantizedcharges

  • electrical charge,

  • baryon number,

  • lepton number,

  • flavor charges,

  • Isospin (3rd-component)

Parity:

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


What caused the baryon asymmetry1

Whatcausedthe Baryon asymmetry?

Carina Nebula: Largest-seen star-birth regions in the galaxy

Sakharov (1967): Three conditions for baryogenesis

B number conservation violated sufficiently strongly

C and CP violated, B and anti-Bs with different rates

Evolution of universe outside thermal equilibrium

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Dipole moments

Dipole moments

  • Electric dipolemoment

Two electricchargesseparatedby a distance

Two magneticchargesseparatedby a distance

Magnetic dipolemoment

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


P articles might have besides mass charge and spin magnetic moment an electric dipole m oment

Particlesmighthave, besidesmass, charge, andspin (magneticmoment), an Electric Dipole Moment ?

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Electric Dipole Moments (EDMs)

Permanent EDMs violate parity P and time reversal symmetry T

Assuming CPT to hold,

combined symmetry CP violated as well.

EDMs arecandidatestosolvemysteryof matter-antimatter asymmetry

 mayexplainwhywearehere!

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


History of neutron edm limits

Historyofneutron EDM limits

  • Smith, Purcell, Ramsey PR 108, 120 (1957)

  • RAL-Sussex-ILL(dn 2.9 10-26ecm) PRL 97,131801 (2006)

Adoptedfrom K. Kirch

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Limits for Electric Dipole Moments

EDM searches - onlyupperlimits, in (uptonow):

Hugeeffortsunderwaytoimprovelimits / find EDMs

SensitivitytoNEW PHYSICS beyondthe Standard Model

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Why also EDMs of protons and deuterons?

Proton anddeuteron EDM experimentsmayprovideone order highersensitivity.

In particularthedeuteronmayprovide a muchhighersensitivitythanprotons.

  • Consensus in the theoretical community:

  • Essential to perform EDM measurements on different targets with similar sensitivity:

  • unfold the underlying physics,

  • explain the baryogenesis.

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Search for Electric Dipole Moments

NEW: EDM search in time developmentofspinin a storage ring:

“Freeze“ horizontal spinprecession; watch

fordevelopmentof a verticalcomponent!

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Search for Electric Dipole Moments

NEW: EDM search in time developmentofspinin a storage ring:

“Freeze“ horizontal spinprecession; watch

fordevelopmentof a verticalcomponent!

A magicstorage ring forprotons (electrostatic), deuterons, …

Onemachinewithm

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Twostorage ring projectsbeingpursued

Jülich, focus on deuterons, or a combinedmachine

BNL forprotons all electricmachine

CW and CCW propagatingbeams

(from A. Lehrach)

(fromR. Talman)

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Most recent richard talmans concept for a j lich all in one machine

Most recent: Richard Talmansconceptfor a Jülich all-in-onemachine

Iron-free, current-only, magnetic bending, eliminates hysteresis

B

A

B

A

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

BNL Proposal

2 beamssimultaneouslyrotating in an all electricring (cw, ccw)

ApprovedBNL-Proposal

Submittedto DOEGoal forprotons

Circumference

Technological challenges !

  • Spin coherence time

  • Beam positioning

  • Continuouspolarimetry

  • E - fieldgradients

Carry out proofofprincipleexperiments (demonstrators) atCOSY

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


M agnetic moment spin g and g

Magneticmoment, spin, g and G

The nuclearmagneton

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


The frozen spin method

The frozen spin Method

Fortransverseelectricandmagneticfields in a ring ( ),

anomalousspin precession isdescribedby

x

Magic condition: Spin alongmomentumvector

Foranysignof, in a combinedelectricandmagneticmachine

For(protons) in an all electric ring

(magic)

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Magic condition: Protons

Case 1: fieldonly

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Magic condition: Protons

Case 2: and fields

magicenergy

magicenergy

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Magic condition: Deuterons

and fields

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Magic condition: Helions

and fields

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Parameters for Richard Talmans all-in-onemachine

Talman/Gebel givemaximumachievablefieldofcoppermagnetsof ~ 0.15 T.

  • Fitting such a machineintothe COSY buildingfavorslowermomenta.

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Edm at cosy cooler synchrotron

EDM at COSY –COolerSYnchrotron

Cooler andstorage ring for (polarized) protonsanddeuterons

Phase space

cooledinternal &

extractedbeams

COSY

… the spin-physics machine

for hadron physics

Injector cyclotron

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Edm at cosy cooler synchrotron1

EDM at COSY –COolerSYnchrotron

Cooler andstorage ring for (polarized) protonsanddeuterons

Phase space

cooledinternal &

extractedbeams

COSY

… an ideal starting point

for a srEDM search

Injector cyclotron

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

“spin closed orbit vector”

makes one turn

“spin tune”

if ║

ring

stable polarization

A

Spin closedorbit

one particle with

magnetic moment

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin coherence

Spin coherence

Weusuallydon‘tworryaboutcoherenceofspinsalong

Polarization not affected!

Atinjection all

spinvectorsaligned (coherent)

After some time, spinvectorsget out ofphaseandfullypopulatethecone

Situation very different, whenyou deal with

Longitudinal polarizationvanishes!

In an EDM machinewithfrozenspin, observation time is limited.

Atinjection all spinvectorsaligned

After some time, thespinvectorsare all out ofphaseand in the horizontal plane

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Estimate of spin coherence times n n nikolaev

Estimateofspincoherencetimes (N.N. Nikolaev)

Onesourceofspincoherencearerandomvariationsofthespin tune

due tothemomentumspread in the beam

and

israndomizedby e.g., electroncooling

Estimate:

Spin coherence time fordeuteronsmaybelarger thanforprotons

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

First measurementofspincoherence time

2011 Test measurementsat COSY

Polarimetry:

Spin coherence time:

decoherence

time

oscillation

capture

from Ed Stephenson

and Greta Guidoboni

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Topics1

Topics

  • Why EDMs?

  • Search for EDMs usingstoragerings

  • Twoprojects, at BNL andJülich

  • Spin coherence time

  • First directmeasurement

    Resonance Method with RF E(B) –fields

  • Polarimetry

  • Summary

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

ResonanceMethodwith RF E-fields

spin precession governedby:

(* restframe)

verticalpolarization

RF E-field

  • Two situations:

    •  EDM effect

    •  no EDM effect

stored d

Polarimeter (dpelastic)

  • This way, the EDM signalisaccumulatedduringthecycle.

  • Statistical improvementoversingle turn effectisabout: .

  • Brings us in therangefor.

  • But: Flippingfields will leadtocoherent betatron oscillations, withhardto handle systematics.

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Simulation ofresonanceMethodwith RF E-fieldsfordeuteronsat COSY

Parameters: beam energy

assumed EDM

E-field

E-fieldreversedevery

Constant E-field

Numberofturns

Numberofturns

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Simulation ofresonanceMethodwith RF E-fieldsfordeuteronsat COSY

Parameters: beam energy

assumed EDM

E-field

Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodof

EDM effectaccumulates

Polarimeter determines

Numberofturns

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

ResonanceMethodwith „magic“ RF Wien filter

Avoidscoherent betatron oscillationsof beam.

Radial RF-E andvertical RF-B fieldstoobservespinrotation due to EDM

Approach pursuedfor a firstdirectmeasurementat COSY.

 „Magic RF Wien Filter“ no Lorentz force

„Indirect“ EDM effect

Tiltofprecession plane due to EDM

RF E(B)-field

Observable:

Accumulationofverticalpolarizationduringspincoherence time

stored d

Transversepolarization

Polarimeter (dpelastic)

  • Statistical sensitivityfor in therange torangepossible.

  • Alignmentandfieldstabilityof ring magnets

  • Imperfectionof RF-E(B) flipper

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Operation of magic rf wien filter

Operation of „magic“ RF Wien filter

Radial E andvertical B fieldsoscillate, e.g., with(here).

beam energy

Spin coherence time maydepend on excitationand on chosenharmonics

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Simulation ofresonanceMethod

with „magic“ Wien filterfordeuteronsat COSY

Parameters: beam energy

assumed EDM

E-field

Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodof

Preliminary, based on K. Nikolaevsderivationofthecombinedrotationmatricesof E/B flipperand ring

EDM effectaccumulates in .

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Simulation ofresonanceMethod

with „magic“ Wien filterfordeuteronsat COSY

Parameters: beam energy

assumed EDM

E-field

Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodof.

EDM effectaccumulates in

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

Simulation ofresonanceMethod

with Magic Wien filterfordeuteronsat COSY

Parameters: beam energy

assumed EDM

E-field

Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodof.

EDM effectaccumulates in

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Some polarimetry issues

Some polarimetry issues

  • srEDMexperimentsusefrozenspinmode, i.e., beam mostlypolarizedalongdirectionofmotion,

  • most promising ring optionsusecw & ccwbeams.

  • scattering on C destructive on beam andphase-space,

  • scatteringon C determinespolarizationofmainlyparticleswith large betatron amplitudes, and

  • is not capabletodetermine .

  • Forelasticscattering longitudinal analyzingpowersaretiny (violatesparity).

Ideally, use a methodthatwoulddetermine.

pCanddC polarimetry isthecurrentlyfavoredapproachforthepEDMexperimentat BNL

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Exploit observables that depend on beam and target polarization

Exploit observables thatdepend onbeam andtargetpolarization

Spin-dependent differential crosssectionfor

Analyzing power

Spin correlations

In scattering, necessary observables are well-knownin therangeMeV (not so foror).

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


How could one do that determine

How couldone do that, determine?

Detector

CW

CCW

cell

  • Detector determinesofcw & ccwbeamsseparately, based on kinematics.

  • Alignmentoftargetpolarization along axesbymagneticfields. Leads tounwanted MDM rotations absolute no-goin EDM experiments.

Suggestion 1: Use a polarizedstoragecelltarget

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


How could one do that determine1

How couldone do that, determine?

Detector

Polarizedionsource(~10 MeV)

  • Collidetwoexternalbeamswithcwandccwstoredbeams.

  • Energycouldbetunedtomatchdetectoracceptance.

  • Polarizationcomponentsofprobinglow-energy beam canbemadelarge, wouldbeselectedbyspinrotators in thetransmissionlines.

  • Luminosityestimatesnecessary

Suggestion 2: Usecolliding beam fromexternalsource

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


How could one do that determine2

How couldone do that, determine?

Detector

CW

CCW

  • Requiresluminosity, -functionsat IP shouldberathersmall.

  • Advantage oversuggestion 2. isthatsupportsluminosity.

  • Disadvantageisthatsensitivitycomesmainlyfromtermswithand.

  • Detailedestimatesnecessary.

Suggestion 3: Usedirectlyreactionsfromcollidingbeams

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Luminosity estimate for the collider option

Luminosityestimateforthecollideroption

Conditions:

Even undertheseveryoptimisticassumptions, event rate will beratherlow.

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Stepwise approach in the jedi project

Stepwiseapproach in the JEDI project

Time scale:Steps 1 and 2: < 5 years

Steps 3 and 4: > 5 years

SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

srEDM cooperations

International srEDM Network

Institutional (MoU) and Personal (Spokespersons …) Cooperation, Coordination

srEDMCollaboration (BNL)

(spokespersonYannisSemertzidis)

JEDI Collaboration (FZJ)(spokespersons: A. Lehrach, J. Pretz, F.R.)

  • Common R&D

    • RHICEDM-at-COSY

  • Beam Position Monitors Polarimetry

  • (…) Spin Coherence Time

  • Cooling

  • Spin Tracking (…)

  • Study Group

    First directmeasurement

    Ring Design

    DOE-Proposal(submitted)

    CD0, 1, …

    HGF Application(s)

    pEDM Ring at BNL

    JEDI

    SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


    Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

    EDM Workshop at ECT* (Trento)

    October 1-5, 2012

    http://www.ectstar.eu/

    • Organizingcommittee

    • Jülich

    • Hans Ströher [email protected]

    • Frank Rathmann [email protected]

    • Andreas [email protected]

    • Brookhaven

    • Mei [email protected]

    • William Marciano [email protected]

    • Yannis Semertzidis [email protected]

    SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


    Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

    Summary

    • Measurementsof EDMs areextremelydifficult, but thephysicsisfantastic!

    • Twostorage ring projects, at BNL and Jülich

    • All-in-onemachinewithcopper-onlymagnets

    • Pursuespincoherence time measurementsatCOSY

    • First directEDM measurementat COSY

      Resonance Method with RF E(B) -fields

    • Polarimeter conceptstobeaddressedbysimulations

    • JEDI collaborationestablished

    SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


    Spin physics edm searches in storage rings

    “Man mußetwasNeuesmachen, um etwasNeueszusehen.”

    “You have to make (create) something new,

    if you want to see something new”

    Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742-1799)

    SPIN – Physics, EDM searches in Storage Rings


  • Login