Presentation on anthrax disease group 2
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PRESENTATION ON ANTHRAX DISEASE Group 2. Disease: Is any impairment that interferes with or modifies the performance of normal functions of animals including responses to environmental factors, such as nutrition, toxicants and climatic infectious agents ;

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PRESENTATION ON ANTHRAX DISEASE Group 2

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Presentation on anthrax disease group 2

PRESENTATION ON ANTHRAX DISEASEGroup 2


Presentation on anthrax disease group 2

Disease:

Is any impairment that interferes with or modifies the performance of normal functions of animals including responses to environmental factors, such as nutrition, toxicants and climatic infectious agents;

Zoonoticdisease, a disease that affect wild and domestic animals as well as human being.


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

  • Anthrax is an infectious disease that caused by large no motile bacterium called Baculliusanthracis

  • It multiplies under aerobic conditions and forms spores when exposed to atmosphere under suitable conditions of humidity and temperature.

  • It highly virulent, when it gain access to the human body whereby multiplies rapidly, producing septicemia


Intro cont

Intro…cont

  • It is zoonotic disease, affect wild animals as well as domestic animals and human being.

  • Acute disease with death rates of up to 92% in humans without treatment

  • Produces toxin that affects the tissues of the body

  • Spores can also survive for two years in water, 10 years in milk, up to 71 years on silk threads and 48 years in soil.


Epidemiology of anthrax

Epidemiology of Anthrax

  • Occurrence; World wide, however more serious in tropics and subtropics.

  • The disease occurs in warm and humid climate usually following heavy rainfall.

  • Source of infection; Contaminated water, soil and pasture / feeds also air.


Causative and mode of transmission

CAUSATIVE AND MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • Disease caused by bacteria and has horizontal transmission through vector and vehicle borne

  • Spores remain dormant until they are inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with an open sore

  • Spores can be carried on skins, furs, clothes, soil, grass or almost any other object.

  • In herbivores anthrax is essentially a soil-borne infection

  • Soil and water contamination is often caused by carcasses of animals which have died of the disease or dismembered by carrion eaters, as well as by excreta and discharges of diseased animals


Clinical signs

CLINICAL SIGNS

If Inhaled:

  • Animals will often die with few symptoms and little warning

  • May have elevated temperature and congested mucous membranes

  • Dead animals may bleed from body openings


Clinical signs cont

CLINICAL SIGNS….cont

If Ingested:

  • Blood discharge from nostrils and the anus

  • Convulsion (Uncontrollable shaking)

  • Congestion of mucous membranes

  • Abortion due to high temperatures

  • Swelling of the tongue, throat, sternum, perineum and flank

  • Sudden death

  • No rigor mortis


Clinical signs1

CLINICAL SIGNS

If Spores Enter through Wound/Sore:

  • Large sore forms with a blackish at the center

  • Swelling

  • Redness

  • Death is not as common

  • Happens more in humans than wild animals and domestic animals


Clinical signs2

CLINICAL SIGNS


Diagnosis

DIAGNOSIS

  • In the laboratory:-

  • Samples may be obtained by making a small cut in an ear vein or with a syringe from any available vein. The punched part should immediately be plunged with disinfected cotton.

  • Smear should be heat fixed.

  • Stain with ethylene blue.

  • Organisms will be seen as short bacilli in chain surrounded by the capsule.


Diagnosis cont

DIAGNOSIS cont….

  • Lymphatic tissue are also used.

  • A positive diagnosis of anthrax in wild animals can be made only by microscopic and bacteriologic examinations of material from cadavers.

  • Diagnosis based on signs in case of less acute is difficult may be mistaken for other disease.


Affected wildlife species

AFFECTED WILDLIFE SPECIES

  • Anthrax is a natural disease that can affect both animals and humans. All warm-blooded animals can catch the disease, such as baboon, civet, lion, cheetah, honey badger, hyena, elephant, hippopotamus, pigs, warthog, giraffe, African buffalo, and antelopes-hartebeest, impala, springbuck, waterbuck, roan antelope, sable antelope etc


Threats to wildlife

THREATS TO WILDLIFE

  • Reducing population size through death which may leads to extinction

  • The mortality rate for anthrax varies with the species. Clinical infections in ruminants are usually fatal.

  • In carnivores, mortality is relatively low.

  • Mortality rates are not widely high in wild animals; however, in 2004, an outbreak in the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve in Zimbabwe killed almost all of the approximately 500 kudu in the reserve,


Threats cont

THREATS cont…

  • 68% of the nyala (Tragelaphusangasi), 48% of the bushbuck (Tragelaphusscriptus),

  • 44% of the waterbuck (Kobusellipsiprymnus)

  • 42% of the roan antelope (Hippotragusequinus).

  • Approximately 6% of the buffalo (Synceruscaffer) in the area also died


Disease mgt in the wild

DISEASE MGT IN THE WILD

  • Proper and rapid disposal of carcasses by complete burning or burial at least 2.5m deep under a layer of quicklime

  • Best method is to completely burn carcass (may take up to 3 days for big animals)

  • Must keep scavengers and carnivores away from effected carcass.

    • Pour gasoline over carcass to keep flies and animals away until you can burn or bury.

    • Build thorn fence to keep other animals out.


Disease mgt in the wild cont

DISEASE MGT IN THE WILD…Cont

  • Wildlife managers should avoid actual contact with carcasses - use heavy rubber gloves and boots and disinfect after each operation.

  • Face masks should be worn to prevent inhalation of germ – laden dust.

  • Never open the chest cavity of animal as this can cause creation of more spores

  • Vaccination is expensive but better using ring vaccination to protect wild animals from being affected.


Other relevant

OTHER RELEVANT

  • From a practical standpoint the treatment of free-living animals cannot be considered

  • Antibiotics such as chlortetracyline and oxytetracyline are effective against anthrax in domestic animals (Lincoln et al. 1964; Sterne 1959)

  • Anthrax can be treated in humans with antibiotics but they must be administered very quickly after infection (1-3 days)


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

  • The occurance of anthrax is largely influenced by climatic and ecological conditions that determine soil moisture, surface temperature, plant growth, surface water and evaporation that is suitability of the environment for survival of the spores (Davis, Karstad &Trainer, 1981)


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Note that is a zoonotic disease

  • The disease of high economic importance

  • Is a disease with effect on international trade.

  • Care is needed during disposal of the infected carcass through incineration or burying.


Refernce

Refernce

  • Davis.J.W. Karstad,L.H and Trainer D.O (1981),Infectious Disease of wild mammals(second edition).The Iowa State University Press, AMEIS,IOWA, U.S.A.

  • Iowa State University college of Veterinary Medicines.www.cfsph.iastate.edu/IICAB/


Presentation on anthrax disease group 2

  • Group members.

  • Abdallah .S. Saidi, Julius Miyengo, BahatiMlingi,

    Eva Siame, Zawadi. A.Malunda, Isaac Mollel,

    EnnocentMkasu


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