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Quiz on DNA & RNA. Actual link to quiz in case hyperlink doesn’t work: http://www.biologyjunction.com/qz_DNA.html. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. Genes: small sections of DNA Controls production of proteins Nucleotide: base unit for strand of DNA (made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base.

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Quiz on DNA & RNA

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Quiz on dna rna l.jpg

Quiz on DNA & RNA

  • Actual link to quiz in case hyperlink doesn’t work:

  • http://www.biologyjunction.com/qz_DNA.html


Protein synthesis l.jpg

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Genes: small sections of DNA

    • Controls production of proteins

    • Nucleotide: base unit for strand of DNA (made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Proteins are used to build cells and control chemical reactions so they do most of the work

    • Ex: breaking down glucose in cellular respiration, digesting food, making spindle fibers in mitosis


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Proteins are polymers of amino acids

    • Amino acid chains are call polypeptides

  • Nucleotides in each gene has info for assembling string of amino acids that make up a single protein


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Enzymes control all chemical reactions of organisms

  • DNA has instructions for making proteins, therefore, DNA controls cells

    • Provides workers with instructions

  • Workers for protein synthesis take instructions, the workers are RNA


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Replication Fork Annimation

  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120076/micro04.swf::DNA Replication Fork


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • RNA:

    • Nucleic acid

    • DNA = double helix (zipper);

    • RNA = single helix (one side of zipper)


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • RNA: workers for protein synthesis

    • Take instructions for how proteins are assembled

    • RNA assembles protein


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

3 Types of RNA that build proteins:

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)

  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA):

    • Brings instructions from DNA to cytoplasm

    • In cytoplasm, moves to ribosome

    • The ribosome is made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA):

    • Makes up ribosome

    • Binds to mRNA

    • Uses instructions to assemble amino acids in correct order


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA):

    • the “supplier”

    • Delivers amino acids to ribosome to be assembled into a protein

Click image to view movie


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Transcription:

    • In nucleus, enzymes make an “RNA copy” of piece of DNA strand

    • Result: formation of 1 RNA molecule (1/2 zipper)

Click image to view movie


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Genetic Code:

    • Genetic message of info for building protein

    • Proteins contain chains of amino acids

      • Language of proteins = alphabet of amino acids

    • In DNA, nitrogen bases are: A T C G

    • In RNA, nitrogen bases are: A U C G


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Genetic Code:

    • Codon: group of three bases in mRNA

    • All organisms use same genetic code


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Translation:

    • Converting info in sequence of mRNA bases into sequence of amino acids in protein

    • Takes place at ribosomes in cytoplasm


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Translation: From mRNA to Protein

    • mRNA made in nucleus travels to cytoplasm

    • In cytoplasm, ribosome attaches to strand of mRNA like clothespin clamped onto clothesline


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Function of tRNA

    • Transfers RNA to ribosomes

    • Each tRNA attaches to one type of amino acid


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Function of tRNA:

    • Pairs with mRNA codon, two molecules join together

    • Ribosome slides along mRNA to next codon

    • Chain of amino acids is formed until a “stop” codon is reached on mRNA strand


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS


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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • 5 Steps of Translation:

    • Ribosome attaches to mRNA strand; tRNA approaches ribosome

    • AUG codon signals “start” of protein synthesis

    • New tRNA molecule attaches to ribosome; amino acids on tRNA molecules join

    • Ribosome slides along mRNA to next codon; new tRNA carrying amino acid attaches to ribosome and mRNA

    • Chain of amino acids is formed until “stop” codon


Dnai animation of protein synthesis process from beginning watson crick to end l.jpg

DNAi animation of protein synthesis process from beginning (Watson & Crick) to end

  • http://www.dnai.org/a/index.html


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Annimations

  • http://www.biostudio.com/demo_freeman_protein_synthesis.htm

  • http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP1302

  • http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/JWANAMAKER/animations/Protein%20Synthesis%20-%20long.html


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