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Quiz on DNA & RNA. Actual link to quiz in case hyperlink doesn’t work: http://www.biologyjunction.com/qz_DNA.html. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. Genes: small sections of DNA Controls production of proteins Nucleotide: base unit for strand of DNA (made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base.

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Quiz on DNA & RNA

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Quiz on DNA & RNA

  • Actual link to quiz in case hyperlink doesn’t work:

  • http://www.biologyjunction.com/qz_DNA.html


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Genes: small sections of DNA

    • Controls production of proteins

    • Nucleotide: base unit for strand of DNA (made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Proteins are used to build cells and control chemical reactions so they do most of the work

    • Ex: breaking down glucose in cellular respiration, digesting food, making spindle fibers in mitosis


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Proteins are polymers of amino acids

    • Amino acid chains are call polypeptides

  • Nucleotides in each gene has info for assembling string of amino acids that make up a single protein


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Enzymes control all chemical reactions of organisms

  • DNA has instructions for making proteins, therefore, DNA controls cells

    • Provides workers with instructions

  • Workers for protein synthesis take instructions, the workers are RNA


Replication Fork Annimation

  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120076/micro04.swf::DNA Replication Fork


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • RNA:

    • Nucleic acid

    • DNA = double helix (zipper);

    • RNA = single helix (one side of zipper)


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • RNA: workers for protein synthesis

    • Take instructions for how proteins are assembled

    • RNA assembles protein


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

3 Types of RNA that build proteins:

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)

  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA):

    • Brings instructions from DNA to cytoplasm

    • In cytoplasm, moves to ribosome

    • The ribosome is made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA):

    • Makes up ribosome

    • Binds to mRNA

    • Uses instructions to assemble amino acids in correct order


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA):

    • the “supplier”

    • Delivers amino acids to ribosome to be assembled into a protein

Click image to view movie


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Transcription:

    • In nucleus, enzymes make an “RNA copy” of piece of DNA strand

    • Result: formation of 1 RNA molecule (1/2 zipper)

Click image to view movie


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Genetic Code:

    • Genetic message of info for building protein

    • Proteins contain chains of amino acids

      • Language of proteins = alphabet of amino acids

    • In DNA, nitrogen bases are: A T C G

    • In RNA, nitrogen bases are: A U C G


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Genetic Code:

    • Codon: group of three bases in mRNA

    • All organisms use same genetic code


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Translation:

    • Converting info in sequence of mRNA bases into sequence of amino acids in protein

    • Takes place at ribosomes in cytoplasm


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Translation: From mRNA to Protein

    • mRNA made in nucleus travels to cytoplasm

    • In cytoplasm, ribosome attaches to strand of mRNA like clothespin clamped onto clothesline


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Function of tRNA

    • Transfers RNA to ribosomes

    • Each tRNA attaches to one type of amino acid


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • Function of tRNA:

    • Pairs with mRNA codon, two molecules join together

    • Ribosome slides along mRNA to next codon

    • Chain of amino acids is formed until a “stop” codon is reached on mRNA strand


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • 5 Steps of Translation:

    • Ribosome attaches to mRNA strand; tRNA approaches ribosome

    • AUG codon signals “start” of protein synthesis

    • New tRNA molecule attaches to ribosome; amino acids on tRNA molecules join

    • Ribosome slides along mRNA to next codon; new tRNA carrying amino acid attaches to ribosome and mRNA

    • Chain of amino acids is formed until “stop” codon


DNAi animation of protein synthesis process from beginning (Watson & Crick) to end

  • http://www.dnai.org/a/index.html


Annimations

  • http://www.biostudio.com/demo_freeman_protein_synthesis.htm

  • http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP1302

  • http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/JWANAMAKER/animations/Protein%20Synthesis%20-%20long.html


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