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Pharmaceutical Education without Boarders: Towards a Global Pharmacist. Carl E. Trinca V Pan American Conference on Pharmaceutical Education. …and in Conclusion. I am proud of Pharmaceutical Education. for its vision, tenacity, talent, dedication, and passion;

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pharmaceutical education without boarders towards a global pharmacist

Pharmaceutical Education without Boarders: Towards a Global Pharmacist

Carl E. Trinca

V Pan American Conference on Pharmaceutical Education

i am proud of pharmaceutical education
I am proud of Pharmaceutical Education
  • for its vision, tenacity, talent, dedication, and passion;
  • although, at times, it would pay to be more agile (faster than a speeding bullet) and opportunistic.
from alma ata to miami to a 14 year journey ca 1988 2002
From Alma Ata to Miami to ?: A 14 Year Journey (ca 1988-2002)
  • Climate: globalization, harmonization and economic integration
from alma ata to miami to
From Alma Ata to Miami to ?
  • Alma Ata -- Health for All 2000
  • Miami 1990 -- Pharmaceutical Care
  • Ixtapa 1993 -- NAFTA
  • Buenos Aires 1996 -- 7 Star Pharmacist
  • Santiago 1999 -- FIP GPEP
  • Miami 2002 -- FTAA
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education first or best
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: First or Best?
  • Pan American Conference on Pharmaceutical Education/Declaration (1990)
  • AACP Commission on Pharmaceutical Education (1992)
  • WHO’s Vancouver Consultancy (1997)
  • FIP World Congress on Pharmaceutical Education (1998)
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education talk or act
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Talk or Act?
  • Pan American Conferences on Pharmaceutical Education (1990-2002)
  • Implementation of Past Conferences: Paraguay (curricular reform); Dominican Republic (institutional reform); Peru (evaluation); Chile (accreditation)
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education talk or act1
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Talk or Act?
  • There is a time to talk and a time to act (and keep talking while you are acting!).
  • Declaration on Accreditation (2002)?
  • Next Steps Toward a more Effective Organization of Pharmacy Educators in the Americas (2002)?
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education respond or anticipate
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Respond or Anticipate?
  • “Educational outcomes should reflect the needs of society…
  • …and the contemporary and developing practice of pharmacy in the nation and region concerned.”

from Good Pharmaceutical Education Practice, FIP

global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education anecdotal or evidence based
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Anecdotal or Evidence-Based?
  • “This is what is happening in my country…; this is what our faculty do…; and this is what our curriculum looks like and we review it every five years…”
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education anecdotal or evidence based1
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Anecdotal or Evidence-Based?
  • “Here are the data supporting the changes in our curriculum and our plans to determine if these changes will make a difference in the way our graduates practice and the way their patients receive their care.”
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education science or practice turf
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Science or Practice (turf)?
  • “How much science should be in the curriculum? How much professional experience should be in the curriculum? How many faculty are required for each? What types of practice experience should be included? How are they evaluated?”
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education science or practice
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Science or Practice?
  • “…graduates should have a sound and balanced grounding in the natural, pharmaceutical, and healthcare sciences that provide the essential foundation…the program must maintain the university character of the education while balancing scientific knowledge with practical training.”

From Good Pharmaceutical Education Practice, FIP

global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education education or training
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Education or Training?
  • “Where were you trained?” “Pharmacist’s training consists of 5 years.”
  • “Our students are active learners who can solve problems and think critically [education] and they become proficient in developing their skills [training] by applying their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in a clinical setting.”
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education inputs or outputs
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Inputs or Outputs?
  • “My curriculum has 200 credits, taught over 8 semesters, with 26 weeks of professional practice experience.”
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education inputs or outputs1
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Inputs or Outputs?
  • “My curriculum leads to a Pharm.D. degree; 95% of our students are from the top 10% of their prepharmacy class; 100% pass the licensing exam on the first attempt; 50% go to residency programs; 10% to graduate school; and the remaining students average three job offers each practicing pharmaceutical care.”
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education reactive or proactive
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Reactive or Proactive?
  • “Oh, my gosh! NAFTA, GATT, FTAA, EU and WTO are all out to ruin pharmacy. I think I’ll become a financial consultant!”
  • “That Dra. Giral; she is so tenacious with the Pan American Conference on Pharmaceutical Education. She just won’t go away!”
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education restrict or enable
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Restrict or Enable?
  • All schools will graduate students with specific, inclusive professional competencies leading to the Pharm.D. degree.

from the ACPE, 2000

global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education restrict or enable1
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Restrict or Enable?
  • Schools conduct self-studies, undergo external on-site evaluation, submit to third-party comments, and must demonstrate that their curricula and institutional resources deliver the required competencies. This process is encouraged in a climate of innovation and experimentation.

from ACPE, 2000

global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education compete or collaborate
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Compete or Collaborate?
  • In market-driven economies, demand determines supply.
  • When supply is reduced to a commodity, all that’s left are quality and satisfaction. Set high standards for partnerships and collaborate with those that can strengthen your position.
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education insulate or integrate
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Insulate or Integrate?
  • Most of our efforts in the international arena to date (and too much of our work at the local level) tends to be insular (we talk to ourselves).
global dilemmas for pharmaceutical education insulate or integrate1
Global Dilemmas for Pharmaceutical Education: Insulate or Integrate?
  • Pharmacy is but a small part of a much larger health care system (including the team) with the patient at the center of our joint efforts (the patient is a member of the team). Likewise, pharmacy educators are part of a health science education system and a university faculty--get out there and include others in our deliberations!
slide26
The International Gold Standard for Quality Assurance and Continuing Quality Improvement in Professional Education Worldwide is…
slide27
The International Gold Standard for Quality Assurance and Continuing Quality Improvement in Professional Education Worldwide is…
  • ACCREDITATION
  • ENSURE
  • INSURE
  • ASSURE
  • ENDURE
accreditation
Accreditation
  • Ensure--when developed, applied and improved in a systematic and unbiased manner over time, accreditation is the closest thing we have to a guarantee of quality educational programs.
accreditation1
Accreditation
  • Insure--accreditation can also serve to protect against loss (of resources, recognition, ability to participate in various commercial and non-commercial enterprises).
accreditation2
Accreditation
  • Assure--accreditation serves to assure students, their parents, employers, the government, society, and ourselves that our education meets certain standards for entry into practice.
accreditation3
Accreditation
  • Endure--commitment to a process of self-evaluation and continuous quality improvement historically has increased the ability of many types of organizations to prosper over time.
slide32
Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs in the Americas: What is Needed/Wanted? What is Feasible? How do we Start?
  • 2002 Declaration
  • Establish Pan American/International Committee
  • Collect and Evaluate Existing Resources
  • Communicate Regularly/Conduct Meetings between Conferences
it is time for tough love
IT IS TIME FOR TOUGH LOVE!
  • And I apologize in advance...
why do organizations of professionals exist
Why Do Organizations of Professionals Exist?
  • Networking (individuals and other organizations)
  • Regular Communication
  • Advocacy
  • Planning and Implementation
  • Programming
  • Provide Continuity
  • Source of Authority
  • Other(s)?
what do we have
What do we Have?
  • Declaration of Principles (vision)
  • Mission Statement
  • Strategic Opportunities
    • External Motivation (governments)
    • Curricular Framework
      • outcomes
      • content areas/disciplines
    • Acknowledgment of Quality Assurance Measures
what do we have continued
What do we Have? (continued)
  • Potentially Willing Partners/Stakeholders
  • Organizational Structure
    • Commission
    • Local Leadership for Specific Projects
  • What Else?
what don t we have why have our efforts to date experienced limited success
What Don’t We Have? Why Have our Efforts to date Experienced Limited Success?
  • No Continuity
  • No Agenda
  • No Working Plan
  • Limited Resources
  • The perception little will be lost if nothing happens
  • Political Grandstanding
a bias for action
A Bias for Action
  • Silos or a New Paradigm?
  • The Latin Model or the Anglo-Saxon Model?
  • An Elite Club or a Helping Hand?
a bias for action1
A Bias for Action
  • Pharmaceutical Forum of the Americas--an existing, regional partnership between FIP and WHO modeled after EuroPharmForum and similar to fora being developed world-wide.
a bias for action2
A Bias for Action
  • Pharmaceutical Forum of the Americas/Foro Farmaceutico de las Americas
  • Other Partners WHERE MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL OPPORTUNITIES can be identified (i.e., COHIFFA, AACP, AFPC, FIP Academic Section, others)
a bias for action3
A Bias for Action
  • Reassemble and Distribute What We Have
  • SOMEBODY Publish a Glossary and Directory
  • Develop an Organizational Commitment (a la Malave)
  • Define and Mobilize Institutional Partners
  • Clarify Roles and Responsibilities
a bias for action4
A Bias for Action
  • Choose Things That Are Essential and That We Can Do Well
    • Accreditation (separate content from process/infrastructure?)
    • Advocacy (with those with the gold)
    • Faculty Development
a bias for action5
A Bias for Action
  • Identify Sources of Funding/Support
  • Seek efficiencies (e.g., technology for communications) and don’t reinvent the wheel (rather, make a better wheel to provide a smoother ride)(e.g., 2002 FIP Statement on Continuing Professional Development).
from alma ata to miami to you are the leadership its entirely up to you
From Alma Ata to Miami to ?: YOU ARE THE LEADERSHIP--ITS ENTIRELY UP TO YOU!
  • Only you can decide about accreditation.
  • Only you can commit to an enhanced Pan American organization.
from alma ata to miami to you are the leadership its entirely up to you1
From Alma Ata to Miami to ?: YOU ARE THE LEADERSHIP--ITS ENTIRELY UP TO YOU!
  • Managers do things right.
  • Leaders do the right thing.
  • I remain optimistic that you will do the right thing!
accreditation4

Accreditation

Insure--accreditation can also serve to protect against loss (of resources, recognition, ability to participate in various commercial and non-commercial enterprises).

1

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