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BELL WORK. DEFINE the following Terms Energy Thermodynamics Metabolism Photosynthesis Cellular respiration Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). How Organisms Obtain Energy. Chapter 8 Section 1. Main Idea. All living organisms use energy to carry out all biological processes.

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Bell work

BELL WORK

  • DEFINE the following Terms

  • Energy

  • Thermodynamics

  • Metabolism

  • Photosynthesis

  • Cellular respiration

  • Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP)


How organisms obtain energy

How Organisms Obtain Energy

Chapter 8

Section 1


Main idea

Main Idea

All living organisms use energy

to carry out all biological

processes


Transformation of energy

Transformation of Energy

  • Chemical reactions & processes in your cells are ongoing; constantly using energy

  • Macromolecules are assembled and broken down

  • substances are transported across cell membranes

  • genetic instructions are transmitted


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  • All of these cellular activities require ENERGY—the ability to do work.

  • Thermodynamics is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe


Laws of thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics

  • Energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed

  • Energy cannot be converted without the loss of useable energy

    • Lost energy is usually converted to thermal energy

  • Entropy is the measure of disorder, or unusable energy, in a system


  • Autotrophs

    Autotrophs

    • Organisms that make their own food

    • Can you give an example of an Autotroph?


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    • Autotrophs convert light energy for the sun into chemical energy

    • These are organisms that perform Photosynthesis

    • Directly or indirectly nearly all the energy for life comes from the sun


    Heterotrophs

    Heterotrophs

    • Organisms that need to ingest food to obtain energy

    • Can you give an example of a Heterotroph?


    Metabolism

    Metabolism

    • All the chemical reactions that take place in a cell is referred to as the cell’s metabolism


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    • A series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction is called a metabolic pathway

    • Catabolic release energy by breaking down large molecules into smaller ones

    • Anabolic uses energy that is released by the catabolic pathway to build larger molecules from smaller ones


    Photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis

    • Photosynthesis is the anabolic pathway in which light energy from the sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell

      6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2


    Cellular respiration

    Cellular Respiration

    • Cellular Respiration is the catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell

      C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy


    Atp the unit of cellular energy

    ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy

    • In living organisms, chemical energy is stored in biological molecules and can be converted into other forms of energy when needed

    • Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP) is the most important biological molecule that provides chemical energy


    Atp structure

    ATP Structure

    • ATP is the most abundant energy-carrier molecule in cells

    • ATP is a nucleotide made of an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups


    Atp function

    ATP Function

    • ATP releases energy when the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group is broken

    • This breakage forms adenosine Di-phosphate (ADP)


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    ATP

    ADP


    Homework questions due 9 27 10

    HOMEWORK QUESTIONS: Due 9-27-10

    • Identify the major source of energy for living organism.

    • Describe an example of the first law of thermodynamics.

    • Compare and contrast anabolic and catabolic pathways.

    • Explain how ATP stores and releases energy


    Ticket out the door

    Ticket Out the Door

    • Explain/Describe how ATP works within a cell.


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