Patterns of Development and Change. Key words. Circular and cumulative causation Core-periphery model Cultural convergence Development Gross domestic product (GDP) Gross national product (GNP). Purchasing power parity (PPP) Spread effect Technology Technology gap Technology transfer
The process of growth, expansion, or realization of potential; bringing regional resources into full productive use.
A level of economic and social achievement below what could be reached – given the natural and human resources of an area – were necessary capital and technology available
Figure 10.3 Comparative development levels.
The “North – South” line of the 1980 Brandt Report suggested a simplified world contrast of development and underdevelopment based largely on degree of industrialization and per capita wealth. More recently, the United Nations General Assembly recognized 45 “least developed countries.” That recognition reflects low ratings in three indicators: gross domestic product, share of manufacturing in the GDP, and literacy rate. The “industrial countries” are those identified in 1995 as most developed by the United Nations Development Program.
Figure 10.7 Gross national product per capita.
GNP is a frequently employed summary of economic advancement, though high incomes in sparsely populated, oil-rich countries may not have the same meaning in developmental terms as do comparable per capita values in industriallly advanced states. The map implies an unrealistic precision. For namy states, when uncertain GNP is divided by unrepliable population totals, the resulting per capita is at best a rough approximation that varies between reporting agencies. A comparison of this map and Figure 10.11presents an interesting study in regional contrasts
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specified time period, usually a calendar year.
A monetary measurement which takes account of what money actually buys in each country.
Figure 10.8 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
When local currency gross domestic product is converted into purchasing power parities, there is a towfold revision of the usual view of world economic status.
The first result is a sharp increase in the developing coutries’ share of total world output. By varying calculations, China now falls somewhere between the world’s second and ninth largest economy, and India, Brazil, Mexico all emerge as bigger than Canada. Second, the abject poverty suggested by per capita gross national or gross domestic product is seen to be much reduced in many developing countries. India, for example, shows a 1992 GDP per capita at market exchange rates of $310; in purchasing power parity, the figure rises to over $1200, and Parkistan’s people jump from $420 to nearly $3000. Compare this map with Figure 10.7 to see how PPP changes our impressions of some countries’ economic status
Originally (1950S ), designating countries uncommitted to either the “First World”. Western capitalist bloc or the Eastern “Second World communist bloc, subsequently a term applied to countries considered not yet developed or in a state of underdevelopment in economic and social terms
A model of spatial structure of an economic system in which underdevelopment or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less advantaged peripheral regions.
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication
The diffusion to or acquisition by one culture or region of the technology possessed by another, usually more developed, society.
Adult literacy rates by country (over 15 years of age) able to read and write short
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre, June 2007.
2. One widely-held opinion is that money now spent on direct and indirect foreign aid more properly should be spent on domestic programs dealing with poverty unempoyment, homelessness, inner-city decay, inequality, and the like. An equally strongly-held contrary view is that foregin aid should take priority, for it is needed to address world and regional problems of overpopulation, hunger, disease, destruction of the environment, and civil and ethnic strife those conditions foster. Assuming you had to choose one of the two polar positions, which view would you support and why?