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Culturally Disruptive Volcanic Events. The Case Studies of Santorini and Maratam. 16 Potential Disruptive Volcanoes. The Case of Santorini (1645).

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Culturally Disruptive Volcanic Events

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Culturally disruptive volcanic events

Culturally Disruptive Volcanic Events

The Case Studies of Santorini and Maratam

16 potential disruptive volcanoes

16 Potential Disruptive Volcanoes

The case of santorini 1645

The Case of Santorini (1645)

  • The first phase of the eruption is a typical pumice fall-out deposit from an estimated 36 km high eruption column. It ranges in thickness on Thera from 50-500 cm (Pichler and Friedrich, 1980) or 10 to 600 cm (Heiken and McCoy, 1984)

What fell out of the sky initially

What fell out of the sky initially

Many possible escape routes

Many possible escape routes

A series of older calderas

A series of older calderas?

Volcanoes and religious shift merapi and the collapse of hinduism

Volcanoes and Religious Shift: Merapi and the collapse of Hinduism ???

  • The late Dutch geologist, Reinout Willem van Bemmelen, in his 1949 book, “The Geology of Indonesia,” claimed that an eruption of Merapi blanketed much of Central Java with ash. The destruction allegedly forced the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram, which had been based in the region of what is now Yogyakarta but was being pressed from the west by the Srivijayan kingdom of southern Sumatra, to relocate to the eastern portion of Java.

  • The vacuum left by the evacuation of the Mataram dynasty paved the way for Muslim domination of central Java.

Mostly speculation

Mostly Speculation

  • Around 700AD to 900AD many Buddhist and Hindu temples were being constructed in Central Java. Eruptions of Merapi occurred before, during and after construction of these temples and many were buried during or soon after construction. Newhall et al (2000) suspect that the destruction of these temples led to (or most likely contributed to) a shift of power from Central Java to East Java in 928AD. The temples that were left were soon abandoned and later occupied by “caretakers” for several centuries.·  

Culturally disruptive volcanic events


  • Around the year 929, the centre of the kingdom was shifted to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. The exact cause of the move is still uncertain; however, a severe eruption of Mount Merapi volcano or a power struggle probably caused the move. Historians suggest that, some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram (924—929), Merapi volcano erupted and devastated the kingdom's capital in Mataram. ".

Homework assignment

Homework Assignment

  • Newhall et al (2000) assume that large explosive eruptions followed the large culture change in 928AD in Java and may have led to the decentralization of the Mataram civilization (a Hindu-Buddhist Javanese civilization between the 8th and 10th Century), but this decentralization is strongly contested by Berthommier et al (1992) who point out that Newhall et al (2000)’s assumption is based upon very little direct evidence.

Slopes of merapi nutrient rich good for crops vegetation

Slopes of Merapi Nutrient Rich; Good For Crops/Vegetation

Current lahar hazard image

Current Lahar Hazard Image

Historical migration routes

Historical Migration Routes

Prior cultural exchange 20 000 years ago

Prior cultural exchange 20,000 years ago

The mix of cultures languages

The Mix of Cultures/Languages?

Culturally disruptive volcanic events

The Borobudur Temple Compounds is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, and was built in the 8th and 9th centuries AD during the reign of the Syailendra Dynasty. The monument is located in the Kedu Valley, in the southern part of Central Java, at the centre of the island of Java, Indonesia. (goes boom)

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