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Persuasion. The process of creating , reinforcing , or changing people's beliefs or actions. For persuasion to occur, TWO OR MORE usually opposing viewpoints must exist. Ethics and Persuasion. Make sure your goals are ethically sound Use ethical methods to communicate your ideas.

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Persuasion
Persuasion

The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions.

For persuasion to occur, TWO OR MORE usually opposing viewpoints must exist


Ethics and persuasion
Ethics and Persuasion

  • Make sure your goals are ethically sound

  • Use ethical methods to communicate your ideas


Degrees of persuasion

Strongly Opposed

ModeratelyOpposed

SlightlyOpposed

Neutral

Slightlyin Favor

Moderatelyin Favor

Strongly in Favor

Degrees of Persuasion

Persuasion involves any movement by a listener from left to right or right to left


Target audience
Target Audience

The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.


TYPES OF PERSUASIVE SPEECHES

(overview)

On a Question of FACT

(to change ideas about what is/isn’t true)

On a Question of VALUE

(to judge the worth, rightness, morality, etc. of a position)

On a Question of POLICY

(advocates whether a course of action should or should not be taken)


Persuasive speech on a question of fact
Persuasive Speech on a Question of Fact

Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that an earthquake of 9.0 or above on the Richter scale could hit California in the next ten years.

Main Points:

I. California is long overdue for a major earthquake.

II. Many geological signs indicate that a major earthquake may happen soon.

III. Experts agree that a major earthquake could hit California any day.


Persuasive speech on a question of value
Persuasive Speech on aQuestion of Value

Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong.

Main Points:

I. Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill.”

II. Capital punishment violates the constitutional ban on “cruel and unusual punishment.”


Persuasive speech on a question of policy
Persuasive Speech on a Question of Policy

Specific Purpose:To persuade my audience thatSierra College should allow the student representative on the Board of Trustees to vote

Main Points:

I. The student trustee on the Board has no vote, and thus has no real voice or power.

II. Since students are the ones most affected by college policies, the student representative should be allowed to vote.


Types of persuasive speeches
Types of Persuasive Speeches

  • Speeches to gain passive agreement

    • Goal is to convince the audience something is desirable or undesirable, without encouraging the audience to take direct action

  • Speeches to gain immediate action

    • Goal is to convince the audience to take direct action (to do something)


Specific purposes for speeches to gain passive agreement
Specific Purposes for Speeches to Gain Passive Agreement

  • To persuade my audience that there should be stricter safety standard on amusement-park rides.

  • To persuade my audience that there is an obesity epidemic among children in the U.S.


Specific purposes for speeches to gain immediate action
Specific Purposes for Speeches to Gain Immediate Action

  • To persuade my audience to donate time to become literacy tutors.

  • To persuade my audience to vote in the next presidential election.


Basic issues of persuasive speeches
Basic Issues of Persuasive Speeches

  • Need

    • Is there a problem or need that requires a change from the way things are?

  • Plan

    • If there is a problem or need, does the speaker have a plan to solve or address it?

  • Practicality

    • Will the speaker’s plan solve the problem?

    • Will the speaker’s plan create new and more serious problems?


Organizing persuasive speeches overview
Organizing Persuasive Speeches(overview)

  • Problem-solution order

  • Problem-cause-solution order

  • Comparative advantages order

  • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence


Problem solution order
Problem-Solution Order

Main point I: Documents the existence of a problem.

Main point II: Presents a solution to the problem.


Problem cause solution order
Problem-Cause-Solution Order

Main point I: Documents the existence of a problem.

Main point II: Analyzes the causes of the problem.

Main point III: Presents a solution to the problem.


PROBLEM - SOLUTION

I. [problem] Students can’t get classes they need and want at NCC

II. [results] Students must go to Rocklin or other colleges to take classes

III. [solution] Convince Administration to offer better variety of classes at NCC

I. [problem] The rate of traffic accidents in Nevada County is increasing

II. [cause] Arrest statistics show that more people are driving drunk

III. [solution] Increase the penalties for drunk driving

PROBLEM - CAUSE - SOLUTION


Comparative advantages order
Comparative Advantages Order

Each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other potential solutions.


COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES

I. [problem] Percentage of eligible voters who vote is less than 50%

II. [possible solutions, incl. advantage & disadvantage of each]

A. Make voting a requirement of citizenship

B. Allow online voting

C. Provide more voter education in schools and to the public

III. [chosen solution, reasons why it’s best] Provide more voter education


Monroe s motivated sequence
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

A five-step sequence that follows the psychology of persuasion, designed especially for organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action.


MONROE'S MOTIVATED SEQUENCE

  • Gain the audience’s attention

  • Show that there is a need for change

  • Show how to satisfy the need for change

  • Help the audience visualize the results of the change

  • Call for action


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