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World War I. Mr. Stikes. SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare.

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world war i

World War I

Mr. Stikes

SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.

a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare.

b. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs.

c. Explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations.

d. Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing women’s suffrage.

origins of world war i
Origins of World War I
  • Causes
    • Balkan nationalism
    • Militarism
    • Entangling alliances
  • Early war in Europe
    • Assassination of Archduke (June 28, 1914)
    • Mobilization
    • Invasion of France, development of trench lines
origins of world war i1
Origins of World War I
  • U.S. Neutrality
    • Wilson’s Declaration of Neutrality
      • August 19, 1914

The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned…

…The United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men\'s souls. We must be impartial in thought, as well as action…

world war i1
World War I
  • Submarine warfare
    • February 5th, 1915 – Germany announces submarine blockade of Britain
      • Why?
    • May 7th, 1915 – Lusitania sunk
      • 1,198 civilians, includes 128 Americans killed
      • Takes 18 minutes to sink

German warning to American passengers

the lusitania
The Lusitania
  • British ocean liner
    • Carried articles of war (up to 1/2 of cargo)
      • 1,250 cases of shrapnel shells; 18 cases of fuses; 4,200 cases of Remington rifle cartridges (1,000 to a box); 50 cases of explosive powder
  • U.S. Response:
    • Wilson issues demand to stop sub attacks
    • William Jennings Bryan resigns in protest
aftermath of the lusitania
Aftermath of the Lusitania
  • Sussex Pledge
    • Germany promises not to attack any more ships
  • National Defense Act
    • June 1916
    • Basically doubles size of army, spends $313 million to improve the navy
1916 presidential election
1916 Presidential Election
  • Woodrow Wilson
    • “He kept us out of war” - Slogan
    • Supported U.S. neutrality officially, while building up the army & navy and loaning money to the Allied powers
    • Argued for a “peace without victory”
  • Central Question of the time:

Should the U.S. remain neutral?

isolationism v globalization
Isolationism v. Globalization
  • Isolationism
    • William Jennings Bryan, Secretary of State, argued for neutrality
      • No loans to powers that were fighting, U.S. should stay out of the war
  • Globalization
    • Theodore Roosevelt and others argued that the U.S. should intervene on the side of the Allies
      • Germany attacked the U.S. by attacking British ships
road to war
Road to War
  • Submarine Attacks
    • In desperation, unrestricted submarine warfare began again on February 1, 1917
      • Germans hoped to defeat Allied before U.S. could impact the war
  • Zimmerman Telegram (1917)
    • German foreign secretary Zimmerman sent telegram to Mexico asking them join war in return for New Mexico, Texas and Arizona
    • Intercepted by British and leaked to American newspapers
declaration of war
Declaration of War
  • April 2, 1917

"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty… It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in, the balance.  But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts--for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free…"

u s in world war i
U.S. in World War I
  • Soldiers called “doughboys”
  • Major battles:
    • 2nd Battle of the Marne
    • St. Mihiel
    • Meuse-Argonne Offensive
domestic impact of u s during ww i
Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Domestic Impact: How the war impacted Americans at home
  • Ways the war impacted America:
    • “Great Migration”
    • Espionage Act & Privacy
    • Eugene Debs & Socialism
    • Changing Workforce Demographics
domestic impact of u s during ww i1
Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I

“Great Migration” (1890’s-1920’s)

  • Mass movement of African Americans to northern cities
  • Why?
    • Escape negative aspects of Southern life
    • Economic opportunities
domestic impact of u s during ww i2
Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I

“Great Migration” (1890’s-1920’s)

  • African-Americans created separate communities within northern cities
    • Best example: Harlem in New York City
  • Helps lead to the Harlem Renaissance
  • Race relations deteriorate
    • Northern resistance (residential segregation)
    • Marcus Garvey: racial pride and self-help
    • Rise of the 2nd Ku Klux Klan
domestic impact of u s during ww i3

Socialism: system of government that argues the workers should control the government and that government should own industry, ex. Communism

Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I

Eugene Debs and socialism

  • Eugene Debs (1855-1926)
    • Helped establish Socialist Party of America
    • Ran for President in 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1920
    • Served 5 years in prison for violating the Espionage Act
domestic impact of u s during ww i4
Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I

Espionage Act and Privacy

  • Espionage Act of 1917
    • Made it illegal to interfere with military recruitment or operations, or to openly support America’s enemies
      • Most famous violator: Eugene V. Debs
    • Schenck v. United States (1919) – Constitutional, not a violation of 1st Amendment [freedom of speech]
    • Still in effect today
      • Some want Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks, charged under the Espionage Act for his actions in releasing classified military documents from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

Debs was a pacifist. He, along with many other socialists, argued that the United States should not enter World War I

domestic impact of u s during ww i5
Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Changing workforce demographics
    • Great Migration = more African-American industrial workers
    • World War I = more women employed
wilson s fourteen points

Open Treaties

  • Freedom of the seas
  • Equality of trade
  • Reduction in armaments
  • Self-determination
  • Reestablishing Russia
  • Restoration of Belgium
  • Alsace-Lorraine to France
  • Adjustment of Italy’s boundaries
  • Breakup of Austria-Hungary
  • Freedom for Balkan states
  • Breakup of Ottoman Empire
  • Freedom for Poland
  • League of Nations
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  • January 8, 1918
    • Speech to Congress made by President Woodrow Wilson
  • Set out U.S. war goals
    • Idealistic
    • War was moral and continual peace was the main goal
league of nations
League of Nations
  • Extra-national organization founded after World War I
  • Purpose:
    • Eliminate future wars by settling disputes between nations by negotiation and arbitration
  • U.S. fails to join
    • Does not ratify Treaty of Versailles
return to isolationism
Return to Isolationism
  • U.S. does not join League of Nations
  • Returns to isolationism
18 th amendment
18th Amendment

Passed by Congress December 18, 1917.

Ratified January 16, 1919.

Repealed by amendment 21.

Section 1.After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

18 th amendment1
18th Amendment
  • Temperance Movement:
    • Sought to reduce/eliminate alcohol consumption in the United States
    • Typical members were evangelical Protestants, many were women
  • Important temperance organizations:
    • Women’s Christian Temperance Organization
    • Anti-Saloon League of America
18 th amendment2
18th Amendment
  • Prohibition in Georgia:
    • 1885: GA General Assembly gives counties the right to declare themselves ‘dry’
    • 1907: GA General Assembly enacts mandatory statewide Prohibition
      • Implemented between 1908-1915
    • 1919: 18th Amendment ratified
19 th amendment
19th Amendment


Passed by Congress June 4, 1919.

Ratified August 18, 1920.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

19 th amendment1

suffrage: right to vote

19th Amendment
  • Provides women the right to vote
  • Linked w/ movement to provide African Americas with suffrage
19 th amendment2
19th Amendment
  • Women’s suffrage in Georgia
    • July 24, 1919: GA rejects the 19th Amendment
    • 1920: 19th Amendment ratified
    • 1922: Georgia women first given right to vote
    • 1970: Georgia officially ratifies the 19th Amendment