Immanuel kant
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Immanuel Kant. 1724-1804. David Hume 1711-1776. Hume argued that morality was hypothetical and contingent. If we were different (different needs and desires) our moral code would be different. Deontology. Deon means duty in Greek. Deontology vs. consequentialism

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Immanuel Kant

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Immanuel kant

Immanuel Kant

1724-1804


David hume 1711 1776

David Hume 1711-1776

  • Hume argued that morality was hypothetical and contingent.

  • If we were different (different needs and desires) our moral code would be different.


Deontology

Deontology

  • Deon means duty in Greek.

  • Deontology vs. consequentialism

  • Acts have intrinsic moral value


Moral law is necessary

Moral Law is Necessary

  • “Everyone must admit that if a law is to have moral force, i.e., to be the basis of an obligation, it must carry with it absolute necessity.”


The moral foundations

The Moral Foundations

  • “…the basis of obligation must not be sought in the nature of man, or in the circumstances in the world in which he is placed, but a priori simply in the concept of pure reason;”


Immanuel kant

Kant

  • A prior claim

  • A posteriori claim

  • Analytic claim

  • Synthetic claim


A prior synthetic

A prior synthetic


Good will

Good Will

  • Talents of the Mind: Intelligence, wit, judgment, etc.

  • Qualities of Temperance: resolution, courage, perseverance, etc.

  • Gifts of Nature

  • Gifts of Fortune


Will character

Will-Character

  • Without a good will no other character trait is good.

  • The only unconditionally good is the will.

  • “thus a good will appears to constitute the indispensible condition even of being worthy of happiness.”


Kant s critique of aristotle

Kant’s Critique of Aristotle

  • Moderation is not good in itself.

  • Without a good will all virtues could be very evil.


Will vs consequences

Will vs. Consequences

  • It is not what you do that matters; it is what you intend and attempt to do that matters and has moral worth.

  • Whether or not you succeed does not matter.


Reason is the guide of will

Reason is the Guide of Will

  • What is the purpose of human beings?

  • Welfare, conservatism, happiness?

  • If this be the purpose of human beings, then nature should not have developed reason. Inclination (instincts) are a much better guide for this purpose.


Reason and happiness

Reason and Happiness

  • “And, in fact, we find that the more a cultivated reason applies itself with deliberate purpose to the enjoyment of life and happiness, so much the more does the man fail of true satisfaction.”

  • The end of human beings cannot be happiness.


Purpose of human beings

Purpose of Human Beings

  • The supreme good of human beings is the GOOD WILL.

  • Reason is necessary for attaining the FIRST and UNCONDITIONAL purpose of human beings: the good will.


Good will vs happiness

Good Will vs. Happiness

  • Reason and having a good will might be inconsistent with happiness and the human inclinations that guide us toward this happiness.


First proposition of morality

First Proposition of Morality

  • Actions must be done from a sense of Duty.

  • The motive of an action must be one’s duty to do the right thing for the action to have moral worth.


Second proposition of morality

Second Proposition of Morality

  • Action done from duty derives its moral worth not from the intended consequences but from the maxim (rule) by which it was determined.

  • Principle of Volition


Third proposition of morality

Third Proposition of Morality

  • Duty is the necessity of acting from respect for the law.


1 st formulation

1st Formulation

  • “Act only on that maxim whereby thou canst at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”


2 nd formulation

2nd Formulation

  • “so act as to treat humanity, whether in thine own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal, never as a means only…”


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