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Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Webinar 3Collecting and Storing Your Data

Teleconference:

Toll-free Dial-in: 1-877-323-2005

Local Dial-in: 416-472-5080

Global Toll-free: 800-6059-2969

Conference ID: 2419719#

Please keep your phones on mute

Moderator: Jaspreet Ahuja

[email protected]


W ebinar 3 collecting and storing your data

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Webinar 3Collecting and Storing Your Data

Michelle Freeman RN, PhD

Assistant Professor, University of Windsor

Nursing Health Services Research Unit (NHSRU)

McMaster University

Date: December 12, 2012

Time: Noon- 1:00PM (EST)


Session objectives

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Session Objectives

  • Review definition of primary data

  • Describe purpose, design and survey development

  • Explain special considerations when using a web-based survey to collect primary data

  • Describe advantages/disadvantages of web-based survey for primary database

  • Discuss next steps with database


Types of data

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Types of Data

Primary data - collected to answer a specific research question.

Secondary data– collected by some other user.

Administrative data –secondary data collected for non-research purposes but may used to answer specific research questions.

Source:Wunsch, H., Harrison, D., Rowan, K. (2005). Health Services Research in critical care using administrative data. Journal of Critical Care, 20: 264-269.


Primary databases

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Primary Databases

  • Result from individual research projects

  • Include many variables and/or themes

  • Can be standardized for use by other investigators to ask different questions


Study

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Study

Employment Goals, Expectations, and Migration Intentions of Nursing Graduates

in a Canadian Border City


Why primary databases to study nurse migration

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Why primary databases to study nurse migration?

  • Limited research using primary databases

  • Canada not immune to its nurses migrating for work

    • “…little understanding of the reason why they leave to work in USA and this problem has received virtually no attention as a research or policy issue” (McGillis Hall et al., 2009, p. 204)

    • No comprehensive data source in either US or Canada to track number of Canadian RNs currently employed in US


Why primary databases to study nurse migration1

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Why primary databases to study nurse migration?

  • US the largest importer of nurses and Canada is an important source country especially for border states (Aiken et al., 2004)

    • Border communities major supplier of nurses for US hospitals as “commuter migrants” but numbers unknown

  • Projected nursing shortages

  • Gap in understanding migration intentions of new graduate nurses and factors pushing them from Canada


Study1

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Study

Study

Purpose

  • What are the migration intentions of these graduates?

  • What factors (values, expectations, personal characteristics and other) influence their migration intentions?

  • Does the Value-Expectancy framework contribute to our understanding of these factors?

Sample

BScN students graduating in June 2011 in a Canadian border community (N= 281)

Method

Mixed methods

  • Web-based survey

  • Interviews


Value expectancy v e framework de jong and fawcett 1981

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Value-Expectancy (V-E)Framework (De Jong and Fawcett, 1981)

  • Migrant makes a conscious decision to migrate or stay by weighing values (goals) against the expectation of obtaining them

  • Measure value

  • Measure expectancy for different locations

    • Subjective probability that valued outcome will be obtained

  • Identifies migration intention for different locations


Study framework

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Study Framework

Conceptual Categories (De Jong & Fawcett, 1981)

  • Wealth

  • Status

  • Comfort

  • Stimulation

  • Autonomy

  • Affiliation

  • Morality

Conceptual Categories for Nurse Migrants

  • Economic rewards

  • Professional development

  • Healthy work environment

  • Safe living and working environment

  • Opportunity for adventure

  • Autonomy in choice of workplace

  • Social support

  • Support of ethical practice


Study framework1

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Study Framework


Survey design

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Survey Design

Goal

  • Accurate primary database with no missing data and high response rate

  • Obtain volunteers for interviews

  • Ability to track respondents to determine if they actually migrated


Survey design considerations

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Survey Design: Considerations

  • What program should I use to develop survey?

  • Where is data stored?

  • Length of survey?

  • Design: What order for questions?

  • Should students be allowed to go back and review responses?

  • Specific variables: Age


Face content validity and functionality

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Face/Content Validity and Functionality

  • Face

    • Conducted in several stages

  • Content

    • Survey categories based on V-E framework (De Jong & Fawcett, 1981) but developed for nursing

    • Nurse migration literature searched to obtain categories which reflected why nurses migrate and to determine job factors deemed important to nurses

    • Consultations with researchers who had experience in survey development

    • Content validity testing of the questions in each category was performed by two experts and content validity index calculated

  • Final survey tested by researcher and five individuals for functionality, time to complete, and to ensure accurate data capture


Designing survey questions choosing scales

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Designing Survey Questions: Choosing Scales

How important is getting a full- time job in nursing after you graduate?

Value Scale

1 very unimportant

2 unimportant

3 neither important nor unimportant

4  important

5 very important


Designing survey questions choosing scales1

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Designing Survey Questions: Choosing Scales

How confident are you that you will get a full-time job in nursing ................in Canada? ………………in another country?

Expectancy Scale

1= Not confident at all.

2= Slightly confident. I am about 25% certain.

3= Somewhat confident. I am about 50% certain.

4= Very confident. I am about 75% certain

5= Extremely confident. I am about 100% certain.


Reb specific requirements for online survey

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

REB: Specific Requirements for Online Survey


Protecting confidentiality and a nonymity of participants

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Protecting Confidentiality and Anonymity of Participants

  • Results stored at university only accessible by password by researcher

  • Participants created unique identifying code

    • To allow matching of the survey with any future follow up studies without allowing the investigators to know the respondent’s identity

  • Required to enter email three times at end of survey

    • Recruited for follow-up interviews

    • Recruited for follow-up studies (Did they migrate?)

    • Enter draw for gift certificates

  • Three lists generated that were separate from survey responses


Planning database data coding

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Planning Database: Data Coding


Developing survey

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Developing Survey



Database excel

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Database: Excel


Database spss

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Database: SPSS


Database spss1

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Database: SPSS


Recruitment

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Recruitment

Three-contact email strategy used (Dillman, Smyth, & Christian, 2009)

  • Email 1: introduced survey, emphasized importance and information to access survey

  • Email 2: thank you to those who completed survey, a reminder for those who had not and repeat of access information

  • Email 3: emphasized limited time left to complete the survey and the importance of responding

  • Optimal timing sequence for web surveys has not yet been determined

    • Sent at one week intervals

  • Draw as incentive

    • End of survey offered opportunity to participate by giving email address

  • Additional contacts required to increase response rate

    • 2 mailings


Advantages of on line survey for collecting storing data

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Advantages of On-line Survey for Collecting/Storing Data

  • Low cost; no storing of paper surveys; no mailing costs

  • Easy to follow response rate

    • Plan additional contacts if needed

    • Predictable response rate within 24-48 hr after email contact

  • Missing data evident

  • No data entry required

  • Easily downloaded into SPSS


Challenges of on line survey for collecting storing data

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Challenges of On-line Survey for Collecting/Storing Data

  • Additional REB requirements

  • Students received too many emails/surveys

  • Could not give reward to each participant for completing survey

    • Entered draw at end

    • Required entering email address into separate database that could not be connected with responses

  • Confidentiality- unable to link with other data (CNO) to follow up on actual migration


Next steps

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Next Steps

  • Repeating survey with graduating class 2013

  • Complete survey during class

    • Incentive for each student

  • Interest from other universities to use survey with graduates


Summary collecting and storing your data

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Summary: Collecting and Storing Your Data

  • Requires careful planning and design

  • Clear benefits to using web-based surveys

  • Primary data bases important in research areas where limited primary research

  • Benefits of connecting with other researchers to adapt survey to other populations


References

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

References

Aiken, L., Buchan, J., Sochalski, J., Nichols, B., & Powell, M. (2004). Trends in international migration. Health Affairs, 23(3), 69-77.

De Jong, G., & Fawcett, J. (1981). Motivations for migration: An assessment and a value-expectancy research model. In G. De Jong, & R. Gardner, Migration decision making: Mutlidisciplinary approaches to microlevel studies in developed and developing countries (pp. 13-58). New York: Pergamon Press.

Dillman, D., Smyth, J., & Christian, L. (2009). Internet, mail, and mixed mode surveys: The tailored design method. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Freeman, Michelle A., "Nurse Migration Intentions in a Canadian Border City" (2012). Open Access Dissertations and Theses. Paper 6900. http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertations/6900

Freeman, M., Baumann, A., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Blythe, J., Fisher, A. (2012). Employment Goals, Expectations, and Migration Intentions of Nursing Graduates in a Canadian Border City: a mixed methods study. Journal of International Nursing Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.07.015

McGillis Hall, L., Pink, G., Jones, C., Leatt, P., Gates, M., & Peterson, J. (2009). Is the grass any greener? Canada to United States of America nurse migration. International Nursing Review, 56, 198-205.

Streiner, D., & Norman, G. (2008). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Upcoming webinar sessions

Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Upcoming Webinar Sessions

Webinar 4: Development of a New Graduate Nurse Employment Database (Jan 21, 2013)

Webinar 5: Applications and Analysis of a Secondary Database

(Feb 20, 2013)

Webinar 6: Understanding How to Work with HOBIC (March 2013)

Webinar 7: Development of a Longitudinal Qualitative Database

(March 2013)


Leveraging Data to Make Better Decisions - An Overview of Databases

Webinar Series

Michelle Freeman, RN PhD

Assistant Professor

University of Windsor

(519) 253-3000 ext. 4812

[email protected]

Andrea Baumann, PhD

Scientific Director

Nursing Health Services Research Unit

McMaster University

Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning

MDCL 3500

(905) 525-9140 ext. 22581

[email protected]


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