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Forensic Science. An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby. Chapter 31. Criminal Personality Profiling Chapter Authors: Michael R. Napier and Kenneth P. Baker Presentation created by Greg Galardi, Peru, Nebraska.

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Forensic science

Forensic Science

An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques

Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Chapter 31

Chapter 31

Criminal Personality Profiling

Chapter Authors:

Michael R. Napier and Kenneth P. Baker

  • Presentation created by Greg Galardi, Peru, Nebraska

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Criminal personality profiling

Criminal Personality Profiling

  • Purpose of offender profiling is to help investigators to narrow the field of suspects based on the characteristics of the crime scene and initial investigative information

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Criminal personality profiling1

Criminal Personality Profiling

  • FBI Behavioral Sciences Unit has developed an accepted investigative tool for officers tasked with solving violent crimes by understanding certain aspects of violent criminal behavior

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Criminal personality profiling2

Criminal Personality Profiling

  • Policing today is performed by professionals possessing better education and training

  • These individuals use advancements in forensic science and investigations to their advantage to assist in solving crime

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Criminal personality profiling3

Criminal Personality Profiling

  • Profiling process provides an approach to conduct a thorough and competent behaviorally based examination of crime scenes and investigations of violent crimes that display characteristics amenable to profiling process

  • Behavioral evidence at crime scenes may give insight into characteristics of offender

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Expert test

Expert Test

Experts should meet following criteria:

  • Has expert had opportunity to review criminological research at FBI BSU, academicians or other law enforcement researchers

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Expert test1

Expert Test

Has expert been trained extensively in theoretical and behavioral aspects of criminal behavior, crime scene reconstruction, criminalistics and other forensic fields

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Expert test2

Expert Test

Does expert have extensive investigative experience involving violent crimes, hands on processing of crime scenes, examining effects of wounding and injuries, observing autopsies, and applying criminal analysis to wide range of violent crimes

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Expert test3

Expert Test

Does the expert approach the investigation of an unsolved violent crime from a law enforcement perspective rather than a clinical psychology one?

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


History of profiling and criminal investigative analysis

History of Profiling and Criminal Investigative Analysis

  • Sherlock Holmes and Charlie Chan brought common place crime solving skills into play

  • Experienced investigators of violent crime develop a cumulative sense of offender traits

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


History of profiling and criminal investigative analysis1

History of Profiling and Criminal Investigative Analysis

  • During the 1950s and 1960s, a select cadre of sworn law enforcement officers was selected to attend FBI Academy

  • As new techniques were developed, ideas were shared which would promulgate cooperative crime solving methods

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


History of profiling and criminal investigative analysis2

History of Profiling and Criminal Investigative Analysis

  • FBI developed Behavioral Science Unit

  • Development of quantitative and qualitative research was done

  • Face to face interviews with convicted offenders were done to better understand criminal behavior and conduct

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Criminal investigative analysis

Criminal Investigative Analysis

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition

Processes of criminal investigative analysis are:

  • Crime from a behavioral perspective

  • Criminal personality profiling

  • Crime scene analysis and reconstruction

  • Search warrant applications


Criminal investigative analysis1

Criminal Investigative Analysis

  • Investigative strategies

  • Interview and interrogation strategies

  • Prosecution strategies

  • Case linkage of serial offenses

  • Equivocal death analyses

  • Threat analyses

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


General concepts

General Concepts

  • National Center for the Analysis of Behavioral Crime is operational successor of FBI’s Behavioral Science Unit

  • CIA collection and processes have been very successful in assisting in the apprehension of criminals

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Profiling

Profiling

Profiling is defined as the identification of certain characteristics of an unknown, unidentified offender based on the way he committed a violent act, and his interactions with the victim

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Descriptive traits of offender

Descriptive Traits of Offender

  • Some traits are learned from witnesses, but most valuable are from combination of:

    • Crime scene examination

    • Investigative experience

    • continued…

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Descriptive traits of offender1

Descriptive Traits of Offender

  • Understanding of offender and victim behaviors

  • Knowledge of wound patterns

  • Knowledge of forensic evidence

  • Results of research conducted by FBI/BSU

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Categories of profiling descriptors

Categories of Profiling Descriptors

  • Categories include:

    • Sex

    • Race

    • Age

    • Criminal History

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Categories of profiling descriptors1

Categories of Profiling Descriptors

  • Employment History

  • Social Adjustment

  • Sexual adjustment or abnormalities

  • Alcohol or drug usage

  • Educational level

  • Interpersonal skills

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Victimology

Victimology

Victimology – victim’s history that impacts the analysis of a crime and the behavioral study of a victim of a violent crime

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Victimology1

Victimology

Victimology examines areas including victim’s reputation, lifestyle, habits, associates, and pastimes to form an opinion about individual’s risk of becoming a crime victim

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Victimology2

Victimology

  • Goal of victimology in investigation is to answer critical questions:

    • Why was that person attacked instead of another person?

    • Was the victim’s lifestyle a contributing factor toward victimization?

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Victimology3

Victimology

By learning the personality, attitudes, lifestyle habits and perspectives of a victim, the crime scene and offense can be better analyzed and evaluated for a better behavioral understanding of what transpired and why crime occurred.

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Trophy or souvenir what is taken from victim

Trophy or Souvenir- What is Taken from Victim?

  • Difference in offenders is demonstrated by items taken from victim and categorization of those items:

    • Evidentiary

    • Valuables

    • Psychological

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Trophy or souvenir what is taken from victim1

Trophy or Souvenir- What is Taken from Victim?

Depending on the perspective of the criminal, items taken from victims may represent trophies or souvenirs

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Trophy

Trophy

Is the item significant to the offender as an accomplishment or a victory and is a trophy of his action

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Souvenir

Souvenir

Is the item taken a fondly remembered occurrence and retained as a souvenir for conclusion in masturbatory fantasies

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Three axioms for offender profiling

Three Axioms for Offender Profiling

Behavior reflects personality:

How a person acts helps to determine their personality.

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Three axioms for offender profiling1

Three Axioms for Offender Profiling

Behavior left at a crime scene can be

discerned:

Evidence left at crime, such as DNA, prints, hair, blood, threads from clothing, leaves behind traces of behavior

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Three axioms for offender profiling2

Three Axioms for Offender Profiling

  • Cumulative research into human behavior by the FBI and many others has allowed behavioralists to classify offenders into typologies

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Analysis of the three axioms

Analysis of the Three Axioms

  • To offer and analysis, investigators must:

    • Base analysis on concrete data

    • Not venture forth and offer an opinion before a conclusive observation of all evidence is reviewed

    • Not use flawed or inaccurate data in determination of final analysis

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Results type of analysis

Results: Type of Analysis

  • Crime Analysis- Investigator gathers all available data about commission of criminal act, the victim and offender

  • Each act or behavior at a crime scene is examined by asking why and how event occurred

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Results crime analysis

Results: Crime Analysis

  • What type f person would have acted in that manner?

  • Crime analysis generally allows investigator to reconstruct interaction between offender ad the victim, and permits explanation of individual pieces of crime scene puzzle

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Results crime analysis1

Results: Crime Analysis

  • Process of crime scene analysis allows for a better understanding of offender’s motivation, criminal sophistication, and possible prior relationship with victim

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Results crime analysis2

Results: Crime Analysis

  • As new evidence arrives during crime analysis, investigator may rethink his analysis, and adjust his interview and investigative strategies

  • Logical thinking and specific parameters should be used by investigators

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Results crime analysis3

Results: Crime Analysis

  • Examples of bodies of knowledge necessary for successful investigator:

    • Knowledge and limitations of scientific techniques

    • Understanding of criminal thinking practically and academically

    • Special expertise of criminal investigators

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Crime scene reconstruction

Crime Scene Reconstruction

  • Crime scene reconstruction allows crime scene investigator to understand how victim was approached and controlled, and interactions between victim and offender

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Crime scene reconstruction1

Crime Scene Reconstruction

Critical part of crime analysis is to be able to reconstruct and sequence criminal acts as they occurred in interaction between victim and offender

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Crime scene reconstruction2

Crime Scene Reconstruction

  • Assists investigator in getting a better feel for the crime: how and why crime occurred

  • Level of spontaneity or planning of crime by offender may be ascertained

  • Allows investigator to have a broader foundation of knowledge to conduct investigation

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Investigative and prosecutorial strategies

Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies

  • Strategizing over investigation of crime is part of investigator’s approach

    Avenues for exploration and psychological strengths or weaknesses of individuals may be part of investigative strategy

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Investigative and prosecutorial strategies1

Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies

  • Preparation of inclusive or partial media statements can assist in framing vulnerabilities of suspect and allow for insider information to be withheld

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Investigative and prosecutorial strategies2

Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies

  • Prosecutors may use knowledge of offender behavior and motivation to:

    • Arrange proof offered in a specific manner

    • Structure questions specifically

    • Order questions specifically

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Investigative and prosecutorial strategies3

Investigative and Prosecutorial Strategies

  • Prosecutor strategy continued;

    • Include trigger terminology of special significance to defendant

    • Use inside information to tie together themes in prosecution strategy and include information in arguments

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

Case resolution often rests with results of investigator’s interview and interrogation skills

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies1

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

  • Two prongs of offender specific interview and interrogation strategies:

    • Behavioral evidence from crime scene

    • Specific background and behavioral traits of suspect

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies2

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

Prong one involves behavioral evidence retrieved from crime scene

Evidence reveals information about offender’s criminal makeup- motivation, skill, victim selection process, interpersonal skills, anger control, criminal sophistication, and personal elements

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies3

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

Prong two involves the specific background and behavioral traits of a suspect

Valuable source of information about suspect can be retrieved from police officers who had prior contact with suspect

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies4

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

Prong two continued:

  • Suspects have favorite mechanisms they use without conscious thought to protect their self concept

  • These are developed and honed over years

  • Deeply ingrained within their personality and have become second nature

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies5

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

Prong two continued:

  • Criminals rely on three ego-defense mechanisms called RPMs:

  • R- Rationalization

  • P- Projection

  • M- Minimization

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies6

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

Through a combination of these RPM mechanisms, a suspect changes objective reality to a personalized view, and “saves face’ and feels better about his action(s)

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Interview and interrogation strategies7

Interview and Interrogation Strategies

  • One of the principle goals of the investigator is to tap into suspects protective mental process

  • Investigator gives impression he understands suspect’s criminal behavior

  • Allows criminal to believe his actions are understandable

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Case linkages for serial offenses

Case Linkages for Serial Offenses

  • MO has three general purposes for the criminal:

    • Enable completion of criminal act

    • Prevent offender’s identification

    • Ease escape of criminal

  • MO may be all information investigator has available to use for investigation

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Case linkages for serial offenses1

Case Linkages for Serial Offenses

  • More reliable method for case linkage is recognition of aspects within a crime that go beyond elements of MO. These may include:

    • Psychological drives of criminals and particularly psychosexual drives of sex offenders

    • Repeated behavior of suspect at scenes

    • Unique behavior of suspect at scene

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Equivocal death analyses

Equivocal Death Analyses

  • Equivocal death involves knowing cause of death but not accurate manner of death

  • Data are placed into one of eight columns which address factors consistent or inconsistent with types of death

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Equivocal death analyses1

Equivocal Death Analyses

  • Crime scene indicators coupled with victimology and other data from initial investigations are used to provide clear and compelling evidence for determining the proper manner of death

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Equivocal death analyses2

Equivocal Death Analyses

  • Eight investigative findings to be evaluated:

    • Factors consistent with homicide

    • Factors inconsistent with homicide

    • Factors consistent with suicide

    • Factors inconsistent with suicide

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Equivocal death analyses3

Equivocal Death Analyses

  • Eight investigative findings to be evaluated, continued:

    • Factors consistent with accidental death

    • Factors inconsistent with accidental death

    • Factors consistent with natural causes

    • Factors inconsistent with natural causes

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Equivocal death analyses4

Equivocal Death Analyses

  • Goal is to arrive at a preponderance of the factors listed under one heading

  • A systematic and thorough review of all evidence should lead to an investigative conclusion as to the manner of death

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Search warrant application

Search Warrant Application

  • CIA may be used in search warrant applications

  • Description of what occurred during commission of crime and what behavior reveals about suspect can be correlated to suspect

  • Additional information such as criminal acts, or past criminal activities can be tied to current activities of suspect

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Concepts and applications in sexual assault investigations

Concepts and Applications in Sexual Assault Investigations

Victim risk includes subjectively classifying victims according to their vulnerability to violent crime based on their everyday lifestyles

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Concepts and applications in sexual assault investigations1

Concepts and Applications in Sexual Assault Investigations

Victim risk classifications are:

  • High risk

  • Moderate risk

  • Low risk

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Offender risk assessment

Offender Risk Assessment

  • Factors to consider for offender risk assessment are:

    • Risk assessment of victim

    • Concern or lack of concern of offender being caught due to factors such as time of day, witness potential, identity concealment, presence of alarms or security cameras

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Victim selection

Victim Selection

  • Psychological process of selecting victims range from simple to complex

  • Victim selection may be based on:

    • Associational level with offender

    • Idealized typing of victim by offender

    • Availability of victim

    • Established rules for victims by suspect

    • Ability of suspect to control victim

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Offender typologies

Offender Typologies

  • Roy Hazelwood was one of premier designers of CIA process

  • Designed typologies for six categories of rapists

  • Categories included manipulation of power, expression of anger, with subdivisions within each category

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Offender typologies1

Offender Typologies

  • Additional categories included rapists who raped incidental to another crime, and lonely heart rapists looking for sexual arousal

  • Hazelwood also offered typologies in relationships between victim and offender, offender’s residency in relationship to victim, prior criminal offending, offender’s age and race, etc

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


False allegations

False Allegations

False allegation is defined as an unfounded claim of having been sexually assaulted , or having received threatening or obscene notes or telephone calls

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


False allegations1

False Allegations

  • Impact of false allegation is twofold:

    • Investigative resources are spread thin by investigation of false allegations

    • Legitimate victims may receive less resources due to investment of time and money in false allegations

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Applications in homicide investigations

Applications in Homicide Investigations

  • Two distinct patterns in homicidal offenders:

    • Organized Offender

    • Disorganized Offender

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Patterns of homicidal offenders

Patterns of Homicidal Offenders

  • Organized offender may have:

    • Planned and rehearsed crime in detail

    • Allowed for variances

    • Conceived crime and locations

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Patterns of homicidal offenders1

Patterns of Homicidal Offenders

Organized offender may have…

  • Determined what tools are needed to efficiently deal with victims

  • Determined what is necessary to prevent identification and apprehension

  • Left little to chance and selected victim who can not be linked to him

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Patterns of homicidal offenders2

Patterns of Homicidal Offenders

  • Disorganized Offender is characterized:

    • By impulsiveness and thoughtlessness of crime

    • By crime scenes which are messy and chaotic

    • By relying on tools at scene to commit crime

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Patterns of homicidal offenders3

Patterns of Homicidal Offenders

  • Disorganized Offender is characterized by :

    • Lack of planning leaves abundant clues at scene

    • Offender’s ability to approach, obtain, and maintain control of the victim throughout crime being present

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Sexual homicide characteristics

Sexual Homicide Characteristics

  • Sexual homicides can be characterized by criminal acts performed on the body

  • Exposure of sexual anatomy, insertion of foreign objects, redressing of victims may be present

  • Staging may be used to misdirect investigation

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Sexual homicide characteristics1

Sexual Homicide Characteristics

  • Meticulous examination of victim’s lifestyle and examination of offender’s past behavior or comments concerning the victim may lead to clues of the identity of the offender

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Lust murder

Lust Murder

  • Lust murder is defined as criminal acts involving an assault of sexual parts of a body

  • Mutilation of victim’s body parts occurs

  • Mutilation must have been intentionally inflicted postmortem

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Body disposal choices

Body Disposal Choices

  • Body location and methodology are clues to revealing a prior victim-offender relationship, offender sophistication level, degree of planning by offender, victim representation of a class of people, and offender knowledge of disposal site

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Body disposal choices1

Body Disposal Choices

  • Abandoning or dumping a body where it fell may be a sign of lack of planning or forethought

  • May exhibit a pattern of disorder

  • Offender who conceals body and evidence suggests he has thought about commission of crime, and may reflect an organized offender

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Body disposal choices2

Body Disposal Choices

  • Posing of a body by offender may suggest:

    • Is leaving body in way that offends discovering party or society, overall

    • Offender may be expressing his inner thoughts or anger and hatred toward victim or other represented by victim- prostitutes, drug dealers, etc

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Body disposal choices3

Body Disposal Choices

Each time an offender moves a body, new crime scenes are established, and the possibility of evidence linking offender to victim increases

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Body disposal choices4

Body Disposal Choices

Moving may infer another step in offender process, concealing of body, or movement to a specific area noted for an activity – lover’s lane, waste dump, etc.

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Crime scene staging

Crime Scene Staging

  • Crime scene staging involves acts that are committed to send the investigation off course and away from the offender

  • Spouses may stage a robbery or burglary to hide murder

  • Innocent people may move body due to being personally disturbed by scene

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


Crime scene staging1

Crime Scene Staging

  • Investigator who thoroughly examines crime scene may find details which are inconsistent with logical progression or evidence presented by crime scene

  • Emotional or unemotional displays or inconsistencies in stories of witnesses should alert investigator to staging

CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 2nd Edition


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