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IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 4: IPv6 Address Types. Rick Graziani Cabrillo College [email protected] Fall 2013. IPv6 Addresses. IPv6 Addressing. Anycast. Multicast. Unicast. Assigned. Solicited Node. FF00::/8. FF02::1:FF00:0000/104. Embedded IPv4. Unique Local. Unspecified.

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Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

IPv6 FundamentalsChapter 4: IPv6 Address Types

Rick Graziani

Cabrillo College

[email protected]

Fall 2013


Ipv6 addresses

IPv6 Addresses


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

IPv6 Addressing

Anycast

Multicast

Unicast

Assigned

Solicited Node

FF00::/8

FF02::1:FF00:0000/104

Embedded IPv4

Unique Local

Unspecified

Global Unicast

Link-Local

Loopback

2000::/3

3FFF::/3

::/128

FE80::/10

FEBF::/10

::1/128

::/80

FC00::/7

FDFF::/7


Global unicast ipv6 addresses

Global Unicast IPv6 Addresses


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

Global Unicast Address (GUA)

Global Routing Prefix

Subnet ID

Interface ID

Range: 2000::/3 0010 0000 0000 0000 ::

to 3FFF::/3 0011 1111 1111 1111 ::

001

IANA’s allocation of IPv6 address space in 1/8th sections

  • Global unicast addresses are similar to IPv4 addresses

    • Routable

    • Unique


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:2::1/64

R1(config-if)#no shutdown

R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:3::1/64

R1(config-if)#clock rate 56000

R1(config-if)#no shutdown


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

show running-config command on router R1

R1# show running-config

<output omitted for brevity>

interface GigabitEthernet0/0

no ip address

duplex auto

speed auto

ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64

!


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

show ipv6 interface brief command on router R1

R1# show ipv6 interface brief

GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1

Link-local unicast address

Global unicast address

  • Link-local address automatically created when (before) the global unicast address is.

  • We will discuss link-local addresses next.


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

PC1: Static Global Unicast Address

2001:db8:acad:1::10

64

2001:db8:acad:1::1


Configuring dynamic ipv6 addresses

Configuring Dynamic IPv6 Addresses

Global Unicast

Manual

Dynamic

Stateless Autoconfiguration

IPv6 Unnumbered

IPv6 Address

DHCPv6

Static

EUI-64


Ipv4 dynamic addresses

IPv4 Dynamic Addresses

DHCP Server


With ipv6 it begins with the router advertisement

With IPv6 it begins with the Router Advertisement

  • The Router Advertisement (RA) tells hosts how it will receive IPv6 Address Information.

  • Sent periodically by an IPv6 router or…

  • When the router receives a Router Solicitation message from a host.


Router advertisement

Router Advertisement

Router Advertisement/Solicitation Messages

  • Part of ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6)

  • Router Advertisements are sent by an “IPv6 router” – ipv6 unicast-routing command

    • Forwards IPv6 Packets

    • Can be enabled for IPv6 static and dynamic routing

    • Sends ICMPv6 Router Advertisements

  • Routers can be configured with IPv6 addresses without being an IPv6 router

R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing

DHCPv6 Server


Slaac stateless address autoconfiguration

SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration)

  • Option 1 and 2: Stateless Address Autconfiguration– DHCPv6 Server does not maintain state of addresses

  • Option 3: Stateful Address Configuration – Address received from DHCPv6 Server

DHCPv6

R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing

DHCPv6 Server

Option 1 (Default on Cisco routers)

“I’m everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)”

Option 2 (Discussed in CCNA Switching)

“Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.”

Option 3 (Discussed in CCNA Switching)

“I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information.”

RA


Router advertisement option 1

Router Advertisement – Option 1

MAC: 00-03-6B-8C-E0-80

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

1

Option 1 – RA Message

To: FF02::1 (All IPv6 devices multicast)

From: FE80::1 (Link-local address)

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

2

RA

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

Default Gateway: FE80::1

Global Unicast Address:

2001:DB8:ACAD:1:+ Interface ID

3

EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value

DHCPv6 Server


Dynamic interface id

Dynamic Interface ID

Router Advertisement

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

DHCPv6 Server

  • Windows operating systems, Windows XP and Server 2003 use EUI-64.

  • Windows Vista and newer; hosts create a random 64-bit Interface ID.

  • Linux: Mostly use random 64-bit number

  • Mac OSX: use EUI-64 (on my Macs)

/48

/64

64 bits

Subnet ID

Global Routing Prefix

Interface ID

SLAAC

EUI-64 Process

Randomly Generated Number


Eui 64 extended unique identifier 64

EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier – 64)

MAC: 00-03-6B-E9-D4-80

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

1

Option 1 – RA Message

To: FF02::1 (All-hosts multicast)

From: FE80::1 (Link-local address)

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

2

RA

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

Default Gateway: FE80::1

Global Unicast Address:

2001:DB8:ACAD:1:+ Interface ID

EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value

DHCPv6 Server


Eui 64

OUI

24 bits

Device Identifier

24 bits

EUI-64

Hexadecimal

00

03

6B

E9

D4

80

Step 1: Split the MAC address

0000 0000

0000 0011

0110 1011

1110 1001

1101 0100

1000 0000

Binary

F F F E

Step 2: Insert FFFE

1110 1001

1101 0100

1000 0000

1111 1111

0000 0000

0000 0011

0110 1011

1111 1110

Binary

Step 3: Flip the U/L bit

0000 0010

0000 0011

0110 1011

1111 1111

1110 1001

1101 0100

1000 0000

1111 1110

Binary

Modified EUI-64 Interface ID in Hexadecimal Notation

FF

FE

02

03

6B

E9

D4

80

Binary


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

PC1: Global Unicast Address

PC1> ipconfig

Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: 

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:acad:1:02-03-6b-ff-fe-e9-d4-80

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::02-03-6b-ff-fe-e9-d4-80

Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : fe80::1

Router Advertisement

EUI-64

  • A 64-bit Interface ID and the EUI-64 process accommodate the IEEE specification for a 64-bit MAC address.


What about stateful dhcpv6 ccna switching

What about Stateful DHCPv6? (CCNA Switching)

  • DHCPv6 is similar to DHCPv4.

  • Host operating systems “may” include the option of ignoring the Router Advertisement from the router and only use the stateful services of a DHCPv6 server.

  • Note: All addresses should be checked before use with DAD (Duplicate Address Detection), similar to gratuitous ARP in IPv4.

DHCPv6

DHCPv6 Server


Link local unicast ipv6 addresses

Link-Local Unicast IPv6 Addresses


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

IPv6 Addressing

Anycast

Multicast

Unicast

Assigned

Solicited Node

FF00::/8

FF02::1:FF00:0000/104

Embedded IPv4

Unique Local

Unspecified

Global Unicast

Link-Local

Loopback

2000::/3

3FFF::/3

::/128

FE80::/10

FEBF::/10

::1/128

::/80

FC00::/7

FDFF::/7


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

Link-local Unicast

64 bits

Remaining 54 bits

10 bits

/64

1111 1110 10xx xxxx

Interface ID

EUI-64, Random or Manual Configuration

FE80::/10

Range: FE80::/10 1111 1110 1000 0000 ::

to FEBF::/10 1111 1110 1011 1111 ::


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

Link-local unicast

Link-Local Communications

  • Used to communicate with other devices on the link.

  • Are NOT routable off the link (network).

  • Only have to be unique on the link.

  • Are not included in the IPv6 routing table.

  • An IPv6 device must have at least a link-local address.

  • Used by:

    • Hosts to communicate to the IPv6 network before it has a global unicast address.

    • Router’s link-local address is used by hosts as the default gateway address.

    • Adjacent routers to exchange routing updates


Ios uses eui 64 to create link local addresses

Wait!Two Link-Locals are the same!

G0/0

IOS uses EUI-64 to Create Link-Local Addresses

S0/0/0

R1

G0/1

R1#show interface gigabitethernet 0/0

GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up

Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is fc99.4775.c3e0 (bia fc99.4775.c3e0)

<Output Omitted>

R1#show ipv6 interface brief

GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1

GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E1

2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1

Serial0/0/0 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1

R1#

EUI-64

FF:FE = EUI-64 (most likely)

Serial interfaces will use a MAC address of an Ethernet interface.


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

PC1: Link-Local Unicast Address

PC1> ipconfig

Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: 

Connection-specific DNS Suffix .:

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:acad:1:3496:1c51:3f57:fe89

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . : fe80::3496:1c51:3f57:fe89

Default Gateway . . . . . . . : fe80::1

  • Many operating systems will use a random 64-bit Interface IDs for GUA and Link-Local IPv6 Addresses.


Configuring static link local addresses

G0/0 FE80::1

Configuring Static Link-Local Addresses

S0/0/0

FE80::1

R1

G0/1

FE80::1

Static addresses are more easily remembered and recognizable.

R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 ?

link-local Use link-local address

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet0/1

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#

Link-Local Addresses only have to be unique on the link!


Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 4 ipv6 address types

ipv6 enable command

Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1

Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable

Router(config-if)# end

Router# show ipv6 interface brief

GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up]

FE80::20C:30FF:FE10:92E1

Router#

Link-local unicast address only

  • Link-local addresses are automatically created whenever a global unicast address is configured

  • The ipv6 enable command will:

    • Create a link-local address when there is no global unicast address

    • Maintain the link-local address even when the global unicast address is removed


Pinging a link local address

Pinging a Link-Local Address

FE80::1

FE80::2

R1

R2

Ser 0/0/0

:1

Ser 0/0/0

:2

FE80::1

2001:0DB8:ACAD:2::/64

2001:0DB8:ACAD:1::/64

G0/0

R1# ping fe80::2

Output Interface: ser 0/0/0

% Invalid interface. Use full interface name without spaces (e.g. Serial0/1)

Output Interface: serial0/0/0

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 secs:

!!!!!

Must include exit-interface


Multicast ipv6 addresses

Multicast IPv6 Addresses


Ipv6 multicast

IPv6 Multicast

IPv6 Addressing

Anycast

Multicast

Unicast

Assigned

Solicited Node

FF00::/8

FF02::1:FF00:0000/104


Ipv6 multicast1

IPv6 Multicast

4 bits

4 bits

8 bits

112bits

  • Similar to Multicast addresses for IPv4.

  • Used to send a packet to a group of devices.

    Two types:

  • Assigned

  • Solicited Node

Group ID

1111 1111

Flag

Scope

FF00::/8


Assigned multicast addresses

Assigned Multicast Addresses

  • FF02::1 – All IPv6 Devices

  • All IPv6 devices, including the router, belong to this group.

  • Every IPv6 device will listen and process packets to this address.


Assigned multicast addresses1

Assigned Multicast Addresses

FE80::0123:456:789A:BCDE

FF02::2

  • FF02::2 – All IPv6 Routers

  • All IPv6 routers belong to this group.

  • Used to communicate with an IPv6 Router (ipv6 unicast routing)

R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing


Multicast groups of a router

Multicast Groups of a Router

R1# show ipv6 interface gigabitethernet 0/0

FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up

IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

Global unicastaddress(es):

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

Joined group address(es):

FF02::1

FF02::2

FF02::1:FF00:1

FF02::1:FF75:C3E0

<output omitted for brevity>

Member of these Multicast Groups

All-IPv6 devices on this link

All-IPv6 routers on this link: IPv6 routing enabled

Solicited-node multicast address for Global Address

Solicited-node multicast address for Link-local Unicast Address

  • FF02 – “2” means link-local scope

  • What is Solicited node?


Solicited node multicast address introduction

Solicited Node Multicast Address (Introduction)

PC2

PC1

Destination: Solicited-node Multicast

“Who ever has the IPv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address”

Solicited Node Multicast Address

  • Used as a destination address when don’t know the unicast address.

  • Typically used as the destination IPv6 address with:

    • Address Resolution (“IPv4 ARP”)

    • Duplicate Address Detection (“Gratuitous ARP”)

  • Same intent as a broadcast but more efficient.

  • Devices process packets with their solicited node multicast address as the destination address: IP and MAC.


Solicited node multicast it s not pretty but it s simple

Solicited Node Multicast – It’s not pretty but it’s simple

Global Unicast Address

Interface ID

Global Routing Prefix

Subnet ID

24 bits

104 bits

2001:0DB8:ACAD

0001

0000:0000:00

00:0010

The last 24 bits match.

Copy

Solicited-Node Multicast Address

104 bits

FF02

0000

0000

0000

0000

0001

FF

00:0010

The simple

The ugly

IPv6 Global Unicast Address: 2001:0DB8:ACAD:0001:0000:0000:0000:0010

IPv6 Solicited Node Multicast Address: FF02::1:FF00:0010


Solicited node multicast used in address resolution

Solicited Node Multicast – Used in Address Resolution

  • AllIPv6 Devices Multicast: FF02::1

  • Link-Local Address: FE80::02-03-6B-FF-FE-8C-E0-80

  • Global Unicast Address: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10

  • Solicited Node MulticastAddress: FF02::1:FF00:0010

I listen for several IPv6 addresses!

PC2

PC1

Destination: Solicited-node Multicast

FF02::1:FF00:0010

“Who ever has the IPv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address”

Note (beyond CCNA): Solicited Node Multicast addresses are also mapped to a special multicast MAC address: 33-33-FF-00-00-10


A brief look at icmpv6 internet control message protocol for ipv6

A Brief look at ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6)


Internet control message protocol icmpv6

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6)

IPv6 Next Header Value: 58 decimal or 3A hexadecimal

  • Described in RFC 4443

  • Much more robust than ICMP for IPv4

  • Contains new functionality and improvements.

  • More than just “messaging” but “how IPv6 conducts business”.

  • General message similar to ICMP for IPv4

  • Also uses Type and Code fields like in ICMPv4.

ICMPv6 Message Body

ICMPv6 Header

Next Header

58

IPv6 Header

IPv6 Data


Neighbor discovery protocol uses icmpv6

Neighbor Discovery Protocol Uses ICMPv6

  • ICMPv6 informational messages used by Neighbor Discovery (RFC 4861):

    • Router Solicitation Message

    • Router Advertisement Message

    • Neighbor Solicitation Message

    • Neighbor Advertisement Message

    • Redirect Message (Similar to ICMPv4)

Router-Device Messaging

Device-Device Messaging


Router solicitations and router advertisements

Router Solicitations and Router Advertisements

Used by SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration)

1

Router Solicitation Message

I need IPv6 address information.

FF02::2

All IPv6 Routers

PC1

DHCPv6 Server

Router Advertisement Message

Here is one of three options:

I have everything you need.

I have mostly what you need, but you will need to contact a DHCPv6 server for other information like a DNS address.

I have nothing for you. Contact a DHCPv6 serverl

2

FF02::1

All IPv6 Devices


Neighbor solicitations and neighbor advertisements

Neighbor Solicitations and Neighbor Advertisements

  • Address Resolution - A device knows the IPv6 address but needs the Layer 2 MAC address.

  • Unlike ARP, ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation/Advertisement messages are encapsulated in IPv6.

  • Information is stored in the Neighbor Cache.

Neighbor Solicitation Message

Whoever has the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address.

1

PC1

PC2

Solicited Node Multicast

Neighbor Advertisement Message

I have the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10. Here is my Ethernet MAC address:

0021:9bd9:c644.

2

Unicast


Neighbor cache

Neighbor Cache

Neighbor Cache

  • Neighbor Cache – Maps IPv6 addresses with Ethernet MAC addresses

  • Similar to ARP Cache for IPv4

  • 5 States (2 noticeable and 3 transitory):

    • Reachable: Packets have recently been received providing confirmation that this device is reachable.

    • Stale: A certain time period has elapsed since a packet has been received from this address.

    • Transitory States: INCOMPLETE, DELAY, PROBE (I will point you to more information)

Neighbor Cache

IPv6 AddressMAC Address

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 0021.9bd9.c644

PC1

IPv6 - 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10

MAC - 0021.9bd9.c644


Neighbor cache1

Windows: netsh interface ipv6 show neighbor

Linux/MAC: ip neighbor show

Neighbor Cache

R1# show ipv6 neighbors

IPv6 Address Age Link-layer Addr State Interface

FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E1 16 0021.9bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 16 0021.9bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0

R1# ping 2001:db8:aaaa:1::100

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::100, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms

R1# show ipv6 neighbors

IPv6 Address Age Link-layer Addr State Interface

FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E1 16 0021.9bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 0 0021.9bd9.c644 REACH Fa0/0

R1#


What we covered

What we covered…

  • Why IPv6? (briefly and quickly)

  • Format of an IPv6 Address

  • IPv6 Address Types

  • Global Unicast IPv6 Address

  • Link-Local Unicast IPv6 Address

  • Multicast IPv6 Addresses

  • ICMPv6 – Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Teach it and use it, and it will all make sense!


My afternoon presentation ipv6 in ccna 2 routing protocols

My Afternoon Presentation:IPv6 in CCNA 2 – Routing Protocols

  • Chapter 1: Routing Concepts

  • Chapter 2: Static Routing

  • Chapter 3: Routing Dynamically

  • Chapter 4: EIGRP

  • Chapter 5: Advanced EIGRP

  • Chapter 6: Single Area OSPF

  • Chapter 7: Advanced Single Area OSPF

  • Chapter 8: Multi-Area OSPF

  • Chapter 9: Access Control Lists

  • Chapter 10: IOS File Management


Web site book etc

Shameless plug!

Web Site, Book, Etc.

  • Rick Graziani - [email protected]

  • PowerPoints for CCNA, CCNP, IPv6

    • www.cabrillo.edu/~rgraziani

    • Username = cisco

    • Password = perlman

Quality time with my two nieces…


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