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IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 4: IPv6 Address Types. Rick Graziani Cabrillo College [email protected] Fall 2013. IPv6 Addresses. IPv6 Addressing. Anycast. Multicast. Unicast. Assigned. Solicited Node. FF00::/8. FF02::1:FF00:0000/104. Embedded IPv4. Unique Local. Unspecified.

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IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 4: IPv6 Address Types

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IPv6 FundamentalsChapter 4: IPv6 Address Types

Rick Graziani

Cabrillo College

[email protected]

Fall 2013


IPv6 Addresses


IPv6 Addressing

Anycast

Multicast

Unicast

Assigned

Solicited Node

FF00::/8

FF02::1:FF00:0000/104

Embedded IPv4

Unique Local

Unspecified

Global Unicast

Link-Local

Loopback

2000::/3

3FFF::/3

::/128

FE80::/10

FEBF::/10

::1/128

::/80

FC00::/7

FDFF::/7


Global Unicast IPv6 Addresses


Global Unicast Address (GUA)

Global Routing Prefix

Subnet ID

Interface ID

Range: 2000::/3 0010 0000 0000 0000 ::

to 3FFF::/3 0011 1111 1111 1111 ::

001

IANA’s allocation of IPv6 address space in 1/8th sections

  • Global unicast addresses are similar to IPv4 addresses

    • Routable

    • Unique


R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:2::1/64

R1(config-if)#no shutdown

R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:3::1/64

R1(config-if)#clock rate 56000

R1(config-if)#no shutdown


show running-config command on router R1

R1# show running-config

<output omitted for brevity>

interface GigabitEthernet0/0

no ip address

duplex auto

speed auto

ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64

!


show ipv6 interface brief command on router R1

R1# show ipv6 interface brief

GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1

Link-local unicast address

Global unicast address

  • Link-local address automatically created when (before) the global unicast address is.

  • We will discuss link-local addresses next.


PC1: Static Global Unicast Address

2001:db8:acad:1::10

64

2001:db8:acad:1::1


Configuring Dynamic IPv6 Addresses

Global Unicast

Manual

Dynamic

Stateless Autoconfiguration

IPv6 Unnumbered

IPv6 Address

DHCPv6

Static

EUI-64


IPv4 Dynamic Addresses

DHCP Server


With IPv6 it begins with the Router Advertisement

  • The Router Advertisement (RA) tells hosts how it will receive IPv6 Address Information.

  • Sent periodically by an IPv6 router or…

  • When the router receives a Router Solicitation message from a host.


Router Advertisement

Router Advertisement/Solicitation Messages

  • Part of ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6)

  • Router Advertisements are sent by an “IPv6 router” – ipv6 unicast-routing command

    • Forwards IPv6 Packets

    • Can be enabled for IPv6 static and dynamic routing

    • Sends ICMPv6 Router Advertisements

  • Routers can be configured with IPv6 addresses without being an IPv6 router

R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing

DHCPv6 Server


SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration)

  • Option 1 and 2: Stateless Address Autconfiguration– DHCPv6 Server does not maintain state of addresses

  • Option 3: Stateful Address Configuration – Address received from DHCPv6 Server

DHCPv6

R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing

DHCPv6 Server

Option 1 (Default on Cisco routers)

“I’m everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)”

Option 2 (Discussed in CCNA Switching)

“Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.”

Option 3 (Discussed in CCNA Switching)

“I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information.”

RA


Router Advertisement – Option 1

MAC: 00-03-6B-8C-E0-80

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

1

Option 1 – RA Message

To: FF02::1 (All IPv6 devices multicast)

From: FE80::1 (Link-local address)

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

2

RA

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

Default Gateway: FE80::1

Global Unicast Address:

2001:DB8:ACAD:1:+ Interface ID

3

EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value

DHCPv6 Server


Dynamic Interface ID

Router Advertisement

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

DHCPv6 Server

  • Windows operating systems, Windows XP and Server 2003 use EUI-64.

  • Windows Vista and newer; hosts create a random 64-bit Interface ID.

  • Linux: Mostly use random 64-bit number

  • Mac OSX: use EUI-64 (on my Macs)

/48

/64

64 bits

Subnet ID

Global Routing Prefix

Interface ID

SLAAC

EUI-64 Process

Randomly Generated Number


EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier – 64)

MAC: 00-03-6B-E9-D4-80

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

1

Option 1 – RA Message

To: FF02::1 (All-hosts multicast)

From: FE80::1 (Link-local address)

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

2

RA

Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::

Prefix-length: /64

Default Gateway: FE80::1

Global Unicast Address:

2001:DB8:ACAD:1:+ Interface ID

EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value

DHCPv6 Server


OUI

24 bits

Device Identifier

24 bits

EUI-64

Hexadecimal

00

03

6B

E9

D4

80

Step 1: Split the MAC address

0000 0000

0000 0011

0110 1011

1110 1001

1101 0100

1000 0000

Binary

F F F E

Step 2: Insert FFFE

1110 1001

1101 0100

1000 0000

1111 1111

0000 0000

0000 0011

0110 1011

1111 1110

Binary

Step 3: Flip the U/L bit

0000 0010

0000 0011

0110 1011

1111 1111

1110 1001

1101 0100

1000 0000

1111 1110

Binary

Modified EUI-64 Interface ID in Hexadecimal Notation

FF

FE

02

03

6B

E9

D4

80

Binary


PC1: Global Unicast Address

PC1> ipconfig

Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: 

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:acad:1:02-03-6b-ff-fe-e9-d4-80

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::02-03-6b-ff-fe-e9-d4-80

Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : fe80::1

Router Advertisement

EUI-64

  • A 64-bit Interface ID and the EUI-64 process accommodate the IEEE specification for a 64-bit MAC address.


What about Stateful DHCPv6? (CCNA Switching)

  • DHCPv6 is similar to DHCPv4.

  • Host operating systems “may” include the option of ignoring the Router Advertisement from the router and only use the stateful services of a DHCPv6 server.

  • Note: All addresses should be checked before use with DAD (Duplicate Address Detection), similar to gratuitous ARP in IPv4.

DHCPv6

DHCPv6 Server


Link-Local Unicast IPv6 Addresses


IPv6 Addressing

Anycast

Multicast

Unicast

Assigned

Solicited Node

FF00::/8

FF02::1:FF00:0000/104

Embedded IPv4

Unique Local

Unspecified

Global Unicast

Link-Local

Loopback

2000::/3

3FFF::/3

::/128

FE80::/10

FEBF::/10

::1/128

::/80

FC00::/7

FDFF::/7


Link-local Unicast

64 bits

Remaining 54 bits

10 bits

/64

1111 1110 10xx xxxx

Interface ID

EUI-64, Random or Manual Configuration

FE80::/10

Range: FE80::/10 1111 1110 1000 0000 ::

to FEBF::/10 1111 1110 1011 1111 ::


Link-local unicast

Link-Local Communications

  • Used to communicate with other devices on the link.

  • Are NOT routable off the link (network).

  • Only have to be unique on the link.

  • Are not included in the IPv6 routing table.

  • An IPv6 device must have at least a link-local address.

  • Used by:

    • Hosts to communicate to the IPv6 network before it has a global unicast address.

    • Router’s link-local address is used by hosts as the default gateway address.

    • Adjacent routers to exchange routing updates


Wait!Two Link-Locals are the same!

G0/0

IOS uses EUI-64 to Create Link-Local Addresses

S0/0/0

R1

G0/1

R1#show interface gigabitethernet 0/0

GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up

Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is fc99.4775.c3e0 (bia fc99.4775.c3e0)

<Output Omitted>

R1#show ipv6 interface brief

GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1

GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E1

2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1

Serial0/0/0 [up/up]

FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1

R1#

EUI-64

FF:FE = EUI-64 (most likely)

Serial interfaces will use a MAC address of an Ethernet interface.


PC1: Link-Local Unicast Address

PC1> ipconfig

Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: 

Connection-specific DNS Suffix .:

IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . : 2001:db8:acad:1:3496:1c51:3f57:fe89

Link-local IPv6 Address . . . : fe80::3496:1c51:3f57:fe89

Default Gateway . . . . . . . : fe80::1

  • Many operating systems will use a random 64-bit Interface IDs for GUA and Link-Local IPv6 Addresses.


G0/0 FE80::1

Configuring Static Link-Local Addresses

S0/0/0

FE80::1

R1

G0/1

FE80::1

Static addresses are more easily remembered and recognizable.

R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 ?

link-local Use link-local address

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet0/1

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#

Link-Local Addresses only have to be unique on the link!


ipv6 enable command

Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1

Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable

Router(config-if)# end

Router# show ipv6 interface brief

GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up]

FE80::20C:30FF:FE10:92E1

Router#

Link-local unicast address only

  • Link-local addresses are automatically created whenever a global unicast address is configured

  • The ipv6 enable command will:

    • Create a link-local address when there is no global unicast address

    • Maintain the link-local address even when the global unicast address is removed


Pinging a Link-Local Address

FE80::1

FE80::2

R1

R2

Ser 0/0/0

:1

Ser 0/0/0

:2

FE80::1

2001:0DB8:ACAD:2::/64

2001:0DB8:ACAD:1::/64

G0/0

R1# ping fe80::2

Output Interface: ser 0/0/0

% Invalid interface. Use full interface name without spaces (e.g. Serial0/1)

Output Interface: serial0/0/0

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 secs:

!!!!!

Must include exit-interface


Multicast IPv6 Addresses


IPv6 Multicast

IPv6 Addressing

Anycast

Multicast

Unicast

Assigned

Solicited Node

FF00::/8

FF02::1:FF00:0000/104


IPv6 Multicast

4 bits

4 bits

8 bits

112bits

  • Similar to Multicast addresses for IPv4.

  • Used to send a packet to a group of devices.

    Two types:

  • Assigned

  • Solicited Node

Group ID

1111 1111

Flag

Scope

FF00::/8


Assigned Multicast Addresses

  • FF02::1 – All IPv6 Devices

  • All IPv6 devices, including the router, belong to this group.

  • Every IPv6 device will listen and process packets to this address.


Assigned Multicast Addresses

FE80::0123:456:789A:BCDE

FF02::2

  • FF02::2 – All IPv6 Routers

  • All IPv6 routers belong to this group.

  • Used to communicate with an IPv6 Router (ipv6 unicast routing)

R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing


Multicast Groups of a Router

R1# show ipv6 interface gigabitethernet 0/0

FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up

IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0

Global unicastaddress(es):

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64

Joined group address(es):

FF02::1

FF02::2

FF02::1:FF00:1

FF02::1:FF75:C3E0

<output omitted for brevity>

Member of these Multicast Groups

All-IPv6 devices on this link

All-IPv6 routers on this link: IPv6 routing enabled

Solicited-node multicast address for Global Address

Solicited-node multicast address for Link-local Unicast Address

  • FF02 – “2” means link-local scope

  • What is Solicited node?


Solicited Node Multicast Address (Introduction)

PC2

PC1

Destination: Solicited-node Multicast

“Who ever has the IPv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address”

Solicited Node Multicast Address

  • Used as a destination address when don’t know the unicast address.

  • Typically used as the destination IPv6 address with:

    • Address Resolution (“IPv4 ARP”)

    • Duplicate Address Detection (“Gratuitous ARP”)

  • Same intent as a broadcast but more efficient.

  • Devices process packets with their solicited node multicast address as the destination address: IP and MAC.


Solicited Node Multicast – It’s not pretty but it’s simple

Global Unicast Address

Interface ID

Global Routing Prefix

Subnet ID

24 bits

104 bits

2001:0DB8:ACAD

0001

0000:0000:00

00:0010

The last 24 bits match.

Copy

Solicited-Node Multicast Address

104 bits

FF02

0000

0000

0000

0000

0001

FF

00:0010

The simple

The ugly

IPv6 Global Unicast Address: 2001:0DB8:ACAD:0001:0000:0000:0000:0010

IPv6 Solicited Node Multicast Address: FF02::1:FF00:0010


Solicited Node Multicast – Used in Address Resolution

  • AllIPv6 Devices Multicast: FF02::1

  • Link-Local Address: FE80::02-03-6B-FF-FE-8C-E0-80

  • Global Unicast Address: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10

  • Solicited Node MulticastAddress: FF02::1:FF00:0010

I listen for several IPv6 addresses!

PC2

PC1

Destination: Solicited-node Multicast

FF02::1:FF00:0010

“Who ever has the IPv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address”

Note (beyond CCNA): Solicited Node Multicast addresses are also mapped to a special multicast MAC address: 33-33-FF-00-00-10


A Brief look at ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6)


Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6)

IPv6 Next Header Value: 58 decimal or 3A hexadecimal

  • Described in RFC 4443

  • Much more robust than ICMP for IPv4

  • Contains new functionality and improvements.

  • More than just “messaging” but “how IPv6 conducts business”.

  • General message similar to ICMP for IPv4

  • Also uses Type and Code fields like in ICMPv4.

ICMPv6 Message Body

ICMPv6 Header

Next Header

58

IPv6 Header

IPv6 Data


Neighbor Discovery Protocol Uses ICMPv6

  • ICMPv6 informational messages used by Neighbor Discovery (RFC 4861):

    • Router Solicitation Message

    • Router Advertisement Message

    • Neighbor Solicitation Message

    • Neighbor Advertisement Message

    • Redirect Message (Similar to ICMPv4)

Router-Device Messaging

Device-Device Messaging


Router Solicitations and Router Advertisements

Used by SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration)

1

Router Solicitation Message

I need IPv6 address information.

FF02::2

All IPv6 Routers

PC1

DHCPv6 Server

Router Advertisement Message

Here is one of three options:

I have everything you need.

I have mostly what you need, but you will need to contact a DHCPv6 server for other information like a DNS address.

I have nothing for you. Contact a DHCPv6 serverl

2

FF02::1

All IPv6 Devices


Neighbor Solicitations and Neighbor Advertisements

  • Address Resolution - A device knows the IPv6 address but needs the Layer 2 MAC address.

  • Unlike ARP, ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation/Advertisement messages are encapsulated in IPv6.

  • Information is stored in the Neighbor Cache.

Neighbor Solicitation Message

Whoever has the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address.

1

PC1

PC2

Solicited Node Multicast

Neighbor Advertisement Message

I have the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10. Here is my Ethernet MAC address:

0021:9bd9:c644.

2

Unicast


Neighbor Cache

Neighbor Cache

  • Neighbor Cache – Maps IPv6 addresses with Ethernet MAC addresses

  • Similar to ARP Cache for IPv4

  • 5 States (2 noticeable and 3 transitory):

    • Reachable: Packets have recently been received providing confirmation that this device is reachable.

    • Stale: A certain time period has elapsed since a packet has been received from this address.

    • Transitory States: INCOMPLETE, DELAY, PROBE (I will point you to more information)

Neighbor Cache

IPv6 AddressMAC Address

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 0021.9bd9.c644

PC1

IPv6 - 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10

MAC - 0021.9bd9.c644


Windows: netsh interface ipv6 show neighbor

Linux/MAC: ip neighbor show

Neighbor Cache

R1# show ipv6 neighbors

IPv6 Address Age Link-layer Addr State Interface

FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E1 16 0021.9bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 16 0021.9bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0

R1# ping 2001:db8:aaaa:1::100

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::100, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms

R1# show ipv6 neighbors

IPv6 Address Age Link-layer Addr State Interface

FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E1 16 0021.9bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0

2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 0 0021.9bd9.c644 REACH Fa0/0

R1#


What we covered…

  • Why IPv6? (briefly and quickly)

  • Format of an IPv6 Address

  • IPv6 Address Types

  • Global Unicast IPv6 Address

  • Link-Local Unicast IPv6 Address

  • Multicast IPv6 Addresses

  • ICMPv6 – Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Teach it and use it, and it will all make sense!


My Afternoon Presentation:IPv6 in CCNA 2 – Routing Protocols

  • Chapter 1: Routing Concepts

  • Chapter 2: Static Routing

  • Chapter 3: Routing Dynamically

  • Chapter 4: EIGRP

  • Chapter 5: Advanced EIGRP

  • Chapter 6: Single Area OSPF

  • Chapter 7: Advanced Single Area OSPF

  • Chapter 8: Multi-Area OSPF

  • Chapter 9: Access Control Lists

  • Chapter 10: IOS File Management


Shameless plug!

Web Site, Book, Etc.

  • Rick Graziani - [email protected]

  • PowerPoints for CCNA, CCNP, IPv6

    • www.cabrillo.edu/~rgraziani

    • Username = cisco

    • Password = perlman

Quality time with my two nieces…


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