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SENSATION AND PERCEPTION. KEY POINTS. Distinguish between sensation and perception Psychophysics: absolute threshold and difference threshold Identify each major sensory system, their receptors, and type of sensory information each receives

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Presentation Transcript
key points
KEY POINTS
  • Distinguish between sensation and perception
  • Psychophysics: absolute threshold and difference threshold
  • Identify each major sensory system, their receptors, and type of sensory information each receives
  • Perception: selection, organization and interpretation
sensation
Sensation
  • Input of sensory information
  • Process of receiving, converting, and transmitting information from the outside world
sensory systems
Sensory Systems
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Smell (olfaction)
  • Taste (gustation)
  • Vestibular sense (balance)
  • Kinethesis (body movement)
  • Touch (pressure, pain, temperature)
vision
Vision
  • Visual receptor cells located on retina:rods for night vision and cones for color vision
  • The eye captures light and focuses it on the visual receptors, which convert light energy to neural impulses sent to the brain
hearing
Hearing
  • Audition (hearing) occurs via sound waves, which result from rapid changes in air pressure caused by vibrating objects
  • Receptors located in the inner ear (cochlea) tiny hair cells that convert sound energy to neural impulses sent along to brain
smell and taste
Smell and Taste
  • Olfaction (smell) receptors are located at top of nasal cavity
  • Gustation - (taste) receptors are taste buds on tongue. Four basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour and bitter
body senses
Body Senses
  • Vestibular sense (sense of balance) results from receptors in inner ear
  • Kinethesis - (body posture, orientation, and body movement) results from receptors in muscles, joint and tendons
  • Skin senses detect touch (pressure, temperature and pain)
processing
Processing
  • Sensory reduction - filtering and analyzing of sensations before messages are sent to the brain
  • Transduction - process of converting receptor energy into neural impulses the brain can understand
  • Adaptation- decreased sensory response to continuous stimuli
psychophysics
Psychophysics
  • Study of the relationship between the physical properties of stimuli and a person’s experience of them
  • Absolute threshold - minimum amount of energy we can detect
  • Difference threshold - (jnd) the smallest change in a stimulus we can detect
perception
Perception
  • “…a constructive process by which we go beyond the stimuli that are presented to us and attempt to construct a meaningful situation”.
perceptual processing
Perceptual Processing
  • Top-down: perception is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations
  • Bottom-up: perception that consists of recognizing and processing information about the individual components of the stimuli
perception key concepts
Perception-Key Concepts
  • Selection
  • Organization
  • Interpretation
  • Subliminal perception and ESP
1 three major factors of selection
1. Three Major Factors of Selection
  • Selective attention
  • Feature detectors
  • Habituation
2 organization
2. Organization
  • Form (Gestalt)
  • Constancy(size, shape, color, brightness)
  • Depth
  • Color
gestalt principles
Gestalt Principles
  • Rules that summarize how we tend to organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
gestalt psychology form
Gestalt Psychology: Form
  • figure ground
  • proximity
  • closure
  • contiguity
  • similarity
constancy
Constancy
  • Size constancy
  • Shape constancy
  • Color constancy
  • Brightness constancy
3 four major factors of interpretation
3. Four Major Factors of Interpretation
  • Perceptual adaptation
  • Perceptual set
  • Individual motivation
  • Frame of reference
subliminal perception
Subliminal Perception
  • Stimuli that occur below the threshold of our conscious awareness but have a weak, if any effect on behavior
4 extrasensory perception esp
4. Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
  • Alleged perception in the absence of sensory data
  • Types of ESP - telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis
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