Chapter 11:  Other Health Impairments

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Other Health Impairments: Definition. IDEA definition- Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyper

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Chapter 11: Other Health Impairments

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1. Chapter 11: Other Health Impairments

2. Other Health Impairments: Definition IDEA definition- Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia; and adversely affects a child’s educational performance

3. Chronic condition- develops slowly and has long-lasting symptoms Acute condition- develops quickly and symptoms are intense but last for a relatively short period of time

4. Sickle Cell Disease Sickle Cell disease is the most common inherited blood condition in the United States. Common symptoms include: anemia and periodic pain. The some of the hemoglobin in the bloods are shaped abnormally sometimes causing clogs in the blood vessels. This results in severe pain, potential damage to organs and tissues, and sometimes strokes. Stressors increasing pain include extreme hot or cold, poor diet, inadequate liquids, and a lack of sleep.

5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV gradually infects and destroys immune cells, primarily T4 cells Body is unable to fight infections Results in opportunistic diseases Stages Latency (asymptomatic) Middle (symptomatic) Final (AIDS- acquired immune deficiency syndrome) Classroom issues Preventing spread of HIV Understanding how HIV affects learning and behavior Concern for confidentiality

6. Asthma Most prevalent chronic illness of children Affects lungs and causes breathing difficulties Characteristics Inflamed, swollen, narrow airways Breathing is difficult Airways are hypersensitive to triggers May be mild, moderate, or severe Classroom management Develop action plan Respond quickly to symptoms Be aware of need to take medications, monitor lung functioning, manage stress and exercise, and use relaxation techniques

7. Cancer Causes unrestrained growth of cells in body organs or tissues Mortality rates declined 57% since 1970’s An estimated 1,600 died in 1999 Classroom Issues Treatments may affect the central nervous system (CNS) creating difficulties with writing and concentration

8. Students will benefit from: removal of time constraints providing handouts with preprinted assignments use of tape recorders, calculators, and computers

9. Diabetes Pancreas stops producing or produces too little insulin, causing glucose (sugar) to build up in the blood Type I (insulin-dependent) is the most common and usually begins before age 35 Type II results from the body’s inability to make enough insulin and usually occurs in individuals over age 45

10. Classroom Issues Monitoring blood sugar and eating properly Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis- too much sugar in the blood Hypoglycemia- not enough sugar in the blood May cause problems with information processing and memory

11. Epilepsy Definition- temporary neurological abnormalities that result from unregulated electrical discharges in the brain Types of seizures: Generalized- loss of consciousness Tonic-clonic seizure (formerly grand mal) Absence seizure (formerly petit mal) Partial- limited to one area of the brain Temporal lobe or psychomotor seizure- dreamlike state Myoclonic seizure- mostly infants and young children

12. Focal motor seizure- jerky movements Focal sensory seizure- see and hear things that are not there Classroom Issues Know first aid for seizures Help avoid factors that trigger seizures Educate peers about epilepsy

13. Causes and Prevalence Causes: Infections Genetic factors Environmental factors Prenatal and Perinatal Influences Postnatal Influences Prevalence 0.31 % of school-age (6-21) children is served under IDEA 315 % increase between 1987 and 1988, largely resulting from the inclusion of students with AD/HD

14. Assessment Process Determining the Presence: Medical exam including medical history Extent of Services: Address limits to strength, vitality, or alertness Write the IEP to address medical procedures and educational standards If hospitalized, write IEP before returning to school Develop an action plan to address emergency procedures or specialized care Reassess every 12 to 18 months

15. Effective Teaching Practice Curricular Goals: Goals vary depending on the type/ severity of the condition Set goals that reflect the child’s cognitive level Implement Instruction: Make accommodations to prevent students from lagging behind academically Use Internet access to support learning Help students deal with insensitivity Prepare family and peers to cope with death

16. Encouraging Participation Practice Inclusion: Create a safe, caring environment Encourage problem solving Bring meaning to learning through sharing and socialization Foster Collaboration Parents and siblings- establish parent support groups and provide recreational/ social opportunities Personnel- medical personnel and nurses work closely with teachers Peers- encourage questioning and peer participation in student care

17. Programs and Practices Early Childhood Years- Kids on the Block, Inc.- shares stories of children with health impairments through puppet theater Elementary Years- Walt Disney Memorial Cancer Institute- prepares children for school reentry while still attending the Hospital/ Homebound School Middle and Secondary Years- Meeting the Challenge- a tool to help adolescents to express their feelings

18. Transition and Postsecondary Years- HIV University- provides emotional support and eliminates barriers to participation

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