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Air Quality How are we doing? Where are we going? 10/12/12. William O’Sullivan, Director Division of Air Quality NJ Department of Environmental Protection [email protected] Origin of Air Pollution Control Requirements . Federal Clean Air Act – Unlikely to change soon

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Air quality how are we doing where are we going 10 12 12

Air QualityHow are we doing?Where are we going?10/12/12

William O’Sullivan, Director

Division of Air Quality

NJ Department of Environmental Protection

[email protected]


Origin of air pollution control requirements
Origin of Air Pollution Control Requirements

  • Federal Clean Air Act – Unlikely to change soon

  • Federal EPA rules – many in progress, some delayed

  • States – primary responsibility for attaining health standards

  • Regional Strategies

    • Needed for regional problems

    • Ozone Transport Commission (Example)

    • State Rules still needed

    • Interstate transport of Air Pollution – significant impacts on health

      exceedances are prohibited

  • Local governments/Communities

    • More involvement

    • Cumulative impacts and EJ


Recent successes
Recent Successes

  • Much lower Fine Particles

    • Well below current NAAQS

  • Lower Ozone

    • At 85 ppb NAAQS

  • Declining Air Toxics Levels


Challenges
Challenges

  • Fine Particles - continue improvement

    • Avoid nonattainment of lower NAAQS

      (Scheduled December 2012)

  • Ozone – exceeds 75 ppb ozone NAAQS

    • 2015 attainment deadline for 75ppb NAAQS

    • Could exceed 85ppb NAAQS with hot summers (Did in 2012)

    • New NAAQS (60 to 70ppb) expected in 2014

  • Air Toxics – Risks still high

    • Primarily Motor Vehicles

    • Diesel Dominates Risk

    • Cumulative Risk

    • Disproportionate Risk - EJ


Focus on particles
Focus on Particles

  • Clean Data Determinations - Air Quality now better than current NAAQS

  • Attainment Designations in progress – need to

    demonstrate maintenance of the NAAQS

    (10 years)

    3. PM offsets - continue until redesignation

    - interpollutant offsets possible

  • New NAAQS – December 2012 EPA commitment

  • Need to continue fine particle downward trend

    – to avoid exceedances of new NAAQS


New Jersey’s Multi-State PM 2.5 Nonattainment Areas


Wood smoke
Wood Smoke

  • Primary Cause of Nonattainment in Rural States

  • Growing Air Quality Problem in Northeast

  • Outdoor Wood Burners

    • Neighborhood Nuisance

    • NJDEP Enforcement – No visible smoke standard

  • Wood Stoves

    • Draft Federal standards for new stoves

    • Will not solve misuse

    • Will not address existing stoves

  • NJ Suburbs and Rural Areas

    • Future exceedances of health standards?

    • No burn days?

    • Woodstove changeout Programs?


Sulfur Dioxide

Criteria Pollutant – Health and Welfare NAAQS

Converts to Sulfates – Major component of Fine Particles (Precursor)

Causes haze – Brigantine Wildlife Refuge (Class 1 area for visibility)

Causes acid rain – kills fish, damages plants and structures


Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide

  • NJ Dominated by Coal in 2009 (10 units)

    • 4 Units – had scrubbers prior to 2009 (1 will cease coal use in 2015)

    • 2 Units – ceased coal use in 2010

    • 3 Units – scrubbers operational in 2010

    • 1 Unit – will cease coal use in 2013

  • NJ Sulfur in Home Heating Oil Limits

    • 2000 ppm now

    • 500 ppm in 2014

    • 15 ppm in 2016

  • Diesel – EPA Rules

    • 15 ppm phased in over last 5 years

      Result – Dramatic decrease in S02 and sulfates

      Challenge – Coal in other states


Out of state powerplants
Out of State Powerplants

  • EPA Prevention of Significant Deterioration Cases

    • Air Pollution Control Technology Focus

    • Seek Best Available Control Technology

    • Examples – Ohio Edison, Homer City, Allegheny, GenOn

  • Clean Air Act Section 126 Petitions

    • Health Standard focus

    • Seek emission reduction sufficient to avoid exceedances of health

      standard

    • GenOn Portland example

  • EPA Mercury and Air Toxics (MAT) Rules

    • Indirectly controls SO2

  • EPA Cross State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) – Court Overturned

    • SO2 – generally effective caps

    • NOx – not sufficient for 75 ppb ozone


Table 1

Comparison of Allowable Short-Term Emissions between the 400 MW Coal-Fired Portland Power Plant and the Proposed 655 MW Natural Gas Fired Newark Energy Center




Ozone transport commission otc regional control strategies

NOx Sources:

Model Rules/MOUs:

EGU’s (Oil and Gas-fired Boilers)*

High Electric Demand Day (HEDD) Turbines*

New Small Boilers

Stationary Generators

Draft Model Rules:

5. Non-Road Equipment Idling*

6. Natural Gas Compressor Stations

Categories Under Review:

7. Municipal Waste Incinerators

8. Promote Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy

9. Coal-fired Boilers (EPA)

VOC Sources:

Model Rules/MOUs:

Large VOC Stationary Storage Tanks*

Autobody Refinishing

Consumer Products

Architectural/Industrial Coatings

Draft Model Rules:

Solvent Cleaning (Industrial/Commercial)

Paint Thinners (Consumer)

Category Under Review:

7. Stage 1 and 2 Vapor Recovery

Ozone Transport Commission (OTC)Regional Control Strategies

*Existing NJ Rule Equivalent to Model Already Adopted


Mobile sources

Mobile Sources

Significant contributors to Ozone,

Toxics, PM2.5, GHG


Diesel Emission Reduction Efforts

  • Mandatory Retrofit Law

    • In last phase – DPWs and miscellaneous on and off-road public diesel vehicles

  • Private off-road construction vehicles

    • Implementing EO60

    • 175 vehicle pilot program

    • Retrofits of certain engines used on state contracts

  • Ports

    • Trucks, ships, cargo handlers, cranes, trains, tugs

    • NJ NY Port Authority diesel emission reduction plan

    • Other ports also reducing emission (Camden, other states)

    • EPA 2015 sulfur limit for oil used by ships

  • Diesel I/M Program


Continued – Diesel Emission Reduction Efforts

  • 4. Stationary diesels

    • NOx RACT Rules

    • Cancer risk management with construction permits

    • Model fine particles and NO2 NAAQS

  • Emergency Electricity Diesels

    • Limited to blackouts and brownouts

    • Can be used for peaking or DSM only if well controlled

    • (NOx and PM)


Summary

Where Do Emissions Need to Decrease?

  • Ozone

    • Vehicles – VOC & NOx

    • Area Sources - VOC

    • Point Sources – Out of State NOx

  • Particles

    • Wood Smoke

    • Diesel Engines – Especially NonRoad

    • Area Sources – Small Engines

    • Out of State S02 and PM

  • Air Toxics

    • Diesels

    • Small Neighborhood Sources

      • Dry Cleaners

      • Autobody Repair/Painting

    • Gasoline

      • New Vehicles

      • Maintain Existing Vehicles


Division of Air Quality Website:  http://www.nj.gov/dep/daq/  (links to programs, regulations and other topics found here)

Air Quality Permitting Program:  http://www.state.nj.us/dep/aqpp/ (applications, forms, testing information, etc.)

Bureau of Air Quality Planning:  http://www.state.nj.us/dep/baqp/ (State Implementation Plans (SIPs), inventory, etc.)

Bureau of Air Monitoring:  http://www.njaqinow.net/Default.ltr.aspx(monitoring data, NJ air quality forecast)

Bureau of Mobile Sources:  http://www.nj.gov/dep/stopthesoot/

USEPA Greenbook for Nonattainment areas:http://epa.gov/oar/oaqps/greenbk/ (nationwide information on nonattainment areas and classifications for criteria pollutants)

USEPA State Implementation Plan Status and information:

http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/sipstatus/

ISG notices come out on AQPP Listserv.  Subscribing to Listserv can be found at :

http://www.state.nj.us/dep/aqpp/listserv.html

AirNow: http://www.airnow.gov/(air quality forecasts)


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