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03-22-12 Medically important bacteria. Chemoorganotrophs (fermentation). Variety of end products (acids and gases) Ex. Clostridium species - form endospores Ex. Lactic acid bacteria ( Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus). Clostridium tetani (23.8).

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03-22-12 Medically important bacteria

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03 22 12 medically important bacteria

03-22-12

Medically important bacteria


Chemoorganotrophs fermentation

Chemoorganotrophs (fermentation)

  • Variety of end products (acids and gases)

  • Ex. Clostridium species - form endospores

  • Ex. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Clostridium tetani(23.8)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Muscular spasms in an individual with tetanus (23.7)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Streptococcus pyogenes stained

with fluorescent antibody (24.2)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Streptococcus pyogenes

growing on blood agar (22.6)


Lactobacillus species 11 3

Lactobacillus species (11.3)

Produce lactic acid; aerotolerant anaerobe, obligate fermenter.

Metabolizes glycogen in the vagina, low pH protects against infection


Aerobic chemoorganotrophs

Aerobic Chemoorganotrophs

  • Obligate aerobes

  • Facultative anaerobes


Obligate aerobes

Obligate Aerobes

  • Large variety of bacteria

  • Ex. Mycrococcus species

  • Ex. Mycobacterium species

  • Ex. Pseudomonas species


Micrococcus luteus 11 11

Micrococcus luteus (11.11)

Airborne, common contaminant in petri dishes,

recognized by yellow pigments


Pseudomonas species 11 12

Pseudomonas species (11.12)

Pigmented Gram-negative rods, diverse biochemical capabilities, important in bioremediation, P. aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogen in hospitals


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

in sputum from a tuberculosis patient (24.17)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Stained lung

tissue showing a tubercule

(a granuloma containing

inflammatory cells) and

lung X-ray from a

tuberculosis

patient (24.18)


Facultative anaerobes

Facultative Anaerobes

  • Ex. Corynebacterium species

  • Ex. Enterobacteriaceae family


Corynebacterium 11 13

Corynebacterium (11.13)

Gram-positive pleomorphic rods (coryneforms)

C. diptheriae causes diphtheria


Enterobacteriaceae 11 14

Enterobacteriaceae (11.14)

E. coli O157:H7 in

uncooked burgers

caused gastroenteritis

epidemic in Washington

State in 1993

Enterobacteria, Gram-negative rods, reside in intestinal tract

Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus are part ofnormal flora,

Shigella, Salmonella, some E. coli stains, Yersina pestis

cause disease


Thriving in terrestrial environments

Thriving in Terrestrial Environments


Endospore formers 11 15

Endospore – formers (11.15)

Gram-positive rods

Bacillus anthracis

Clostridium tetani


Aquatic bacteria

Aquatic Bacteria

Vibrio cholerae - cholera

Vibrio parahaemolyticus - gastrointestinal disease

Legionella pneumophila - Legionaire’s disease

Gram-negative aerobes that use aa’s

Leptospira interrogans - leptospirosis

Treponema pallidum – syphilis

Borrelia burgdorferi - Lyme disease


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Legionella pneumophila,

stained with a fluorescent antibody (24.20)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Scanning EM of Vibrio cholerae

attached to intestinal mucosa using pili (25.12)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Mode of action of cholera toxin (25.13)


Spirochetes 11 26

Spirochetes(11.26)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Syphilitic chancre, the entry point for

Treponema pallidum (22.12)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Scanning EM of Borrelia burgdorferi(22.13)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Life cycle of the

Deer Tick (22.16)


Animals as habitats

Animals as Habitats

  • Skin

  • Mucous membranes

  • Obligate intracellular parasites


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Skin

  • Ex. Staphylococcus aureus. Gram-positive cocci,

    catalase positive, causes wound infections,

    food poisoning

  • Ex. Staphylococcus epidermidis (normal flora)

    Can cause disease in individuals with

    other medical problems


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Staphylococcal toxic shock in the U.S. (25.6)


Mucous membrane

Mucous Membrane

  • Ex. Bacteroides.Anaerobic, Gram-negative rods and coccobacilli, 30% of bacteria in feces

  • Ex. Bifidobacterium. Anaerobic, Gram-positive rods,common intestinal flora in breast fed infants, may provide protective function

  • Ex. Campylobacter and Helicobacter. Gram-negative rods, microaerophiles, C. jejuni causes diarrhea in humans Helicobacter pylori causes stomach ulcers

  • Ex. Haemophilus. Small, Gram-negative coccobacilli,

    love blood, H. influenzae causes ear infections,

    respiratory infections and meningitis in children


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Otis media

(24.8)


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Meningitis is also

caused by:

Haemophilus

influenzae

Neisseria

meningitidis

Streptococcus pneumoniae in spinal fluid

from a meningococcal meningitis patient (27.4)


Mucous membrane1

Mucous Membrane

  • Ex. Neisseria. Gram-negative diplococci, grow on mucous membranes, N. gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhea, N. meningitidis causes menengitis

  • Ex. Mycoplasma. No cell wall, small pleiomorphic cells,

    M. pneumoniae causes “walking pneumonia”

  • Ex. Treponema and Borrelia. Spirochetes, T. pallidium

    causes syphillis, Borrelia species cause Lyme Disease, relapsing fever


M ycoplasma pneumoniae growing on agar 11 27

Mycoplasma pneumoniae growing on agar (11.27)


Obligate intracellular parasites

Obligate Intracellular Parasites

  • Cannot reproduce outside a host cell

  • Transferred by blood-sucking arthropods

    eg Rickettsia rickettsii causes Rock Mountain

    Spotted Fever

  • Can form a sporelike structure (Ex. Coxiella) Q fever

  • Person to person transmission (Ex. Chlamydia)

    C. trachomatis causes eye infection,

    gonorrhea-like STD


Coxiella 11 29

Coxiella(11.29)


Chlamydia 11 30

Chlamydia (11.30)

1 = reticulate bodies, noninfectious

2-4 = dense bodies, infectious upon cell lysis


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Table 11.1


Table 11 1cont

Table 11.1cont


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Table 11.2


Table 11 3

Table 11.3


03 22 12 medically important bacteria

Table 11.3cont


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