How Did HIV Spread?
Download
1 / 35

Cities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 111 Views
  • Updated On :

How Did HIV Spread?. Cities. dirty needles, unsafe blood transfusions. more sexual partners . greater mobility. How Did HIV Spread?. Jet travel. How Did HIV Spread?. How was the Epidemic Discovered?. HIV spread silently around the world for fifty years. 1930s. 1981.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Cities' - tahmores


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

How Did HIV Spread?

Cities

  • dirty needles, unsafe blood transfusions

  • more sexual partners

  • greater mobility




How was the Epidemic Discovered?

HIV spread silently around the world for fifty years

1930s

1981


How was the Epidemic Discovered?

June 5, 1981

  • Five cases

  • Los Angeles

  • pneumocystis pneumonia

30 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 250

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00043494.htm


=

APB

all points bulletin


How was the Epidemic Discovered?

November 5, 1982

  • Just 17 months after the first LA cases

  • Similar pattern: hepatitis B

  • Possible cause:

  • unidentified bloodborne agent

31 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report at 577

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/index82.html


How was the Epidemic Discovered?

December 10, 1982

  • 1 month later

  • Infant: multiple blood transfusions developed AIDS

  • Donor had developed AIDS

31 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report at 652

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/index82.html


How was the Epidemic Discovered?

And six months later?


How was the Epidemic Discovered?

June 1983

  • French announce:

  • New bloodborne pathogen


How was the Epidemic Discovered?

2008 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

Luc Montagnier



How was the Epidemic Discovered?

HIV

Human

Virus

Immunodeficiency


How was the Epidemic Discovered?

June 1981

June 1983

24 months


HIV

is

bloodborne


The Law

Discrimination:

People living with HIV & AIDS

have the

same civil rights

as all persons living with

serious illness.

Mainstreaming Principle


The Law

Workplace Safety:

Treat all blood,

Universal precautions:

at all

as if it is infectious.

from all sources,

times,

How We Protect Others


The Law

Privacy and Confidentiality:

to protect

Heightened privacy protections

people living with HIV & AIDS

from other people’sfear and stigma.

How -- and Why -- We Specially Protect People with HIV


The Law

Discrimination

Privacy and Confidentiality

Workplace Safety

HIV is Bloodborne


AIDS/HIV

Epidemics

  • contagious

1955 - 1981

  • new

BriefGolden Age

  • stigma

of

Infectious Disease Control

  • sexuality

  • race

  • death


Case Study #1:

Paramedics

Should HIV information be broadcast?


Case Study #1:

Paramedics

Discrimination

Workplace Safety


Case Study #1:

Paramedics

Privacy and Confidentiality

Workplace Safety


Case Study #1:

Paramedics

Privacy and Confidentiality

Discrimination


Case Study #2:

Dentists

Can dentists refuse to treat persons with HIV

because of therisk to others?

  • Dentist

  • Staff

  • Other patients


Case Study #2:

Dentists

Workplace Safety:

Universal precautions: Treat all blood, at all times, from all sources, as if it is infectious.


Case Study #2:

Dentists

What if there’s an accident???

But . . .

  • Cut off your hand?

  • Jump out the window?


Case Study #2:

Dentists

Early 1980s:

200 HCWs died each year HBV

seroconversion rate 1: 2.5

Late 1980s: HIV

seroconversion rate 1:

250

“remote risk”

lowered further by

post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)


Case Study #2:

Dentists

US Supreme Court:

School Board of Nassau County v. Arline

480 U.S. 273 (1987)

“significant risk”

“remote risk”


Case Study #2:

Dentists

US Supreme Court:

Bragdon v. Abbott

524 U.S. 624 (1998)

Courts should defer to the reasoned judgement of public health officials,

not the unsupported judgment of a single dentist.



ad