The Porter-Lawler Model. Introduction.
The Porter-Lawler Model
Effort will lead
We begin with effort; i.e., assume that you are newly in a job and working
hard. Presumably, this is because you place high value on the
rewards that you expect to receive in the future for that effort. However,
expectations are not always realized, and you may conclude, based on
experience, that there is some chance you may not actually receive the
rewards promised to you. Hence, you must highly value the rewards that
You anticipate receiving, based on what the organization has promised,
and also believe and trust that these rewards will actually come to you, if your
effort level is to remain at a high level.
Of course, that effort translates into some level of performance. Are they they same thing? No. Performance is evaluated effort, effort that is assigned some value by others in the hierarchy. Thus, in a behavioral sense, performance can be said to be only partly under the control of the individual.
Skills and Abilities
Know where to put effort
Of course, that part of performance that is under the individual’s control , the effort expended, does not always translate into performance. A lack of skills can mean high effort leads only to mediocre performance, as can not being certain what specific activities or duties are most critical or important in adding value
Where to put effort
Once performance level is known, the individual receives some combination of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. This combination is usually outside the individual’s immediate control, since it is determined by managerial and organizational practice.
After the individual receives the rewards that come from effort, he/she will of course have some affective response. Were the rewards satisfactory? Am I happy with them? Presumably , if my effort is high, and the rewards seem commensurate with my hopes and expectations, and are judged by me to be equitable in comparison with significant others, then I will continue to put forth high effort.
The full model
To put effort
Probability that effort leads to reward