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ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING OPERATIONS FOR NATURAL GAS LEAKS AND CARBON MONOXIDE INCIDENTS. Sugar Grove 4-GAS METERS. WHAT DO THOSE NUMBERS AND NOISES MEAN?. TRAINING OBJECTIVES. OSFM Hazardous Materials Technician “A”

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atmospheric monitoring operations for natural gas leaks and carbon monoxide incidents

ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING OPERATIONS FOR NATURAL GAS LEAKS AND CARBON MONOXIDE INCIDENTS

Sugar Grove

4-GAS METERS

WHAT DO THOSE NUMBERS AND NOISES MEAN?

training objectives
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
  • OSFM Hazardous Materials Technician “A”
    • 24-6.2 Identify the types of monitoring equipment used to determine the following hazards. (NFPA 472: 4-2.1.3.2)
      • b. Flammability
      • d. Oxygen deficiency
    • 24-6.3 Given examples of various hazardous materials and the following monitoring equipment, select the appropriate monitoring equipment to identify and quantify the materials. (NFPA 472: 4-2.1.3.4)
      • a. Carbon monoxide meter
      • c. Combustible gas meter
      • d. Oxygen meter
digital numbers and spontaneous beeps
DIGITAL NUMBERS AND SPONTANEOUS BEEPS
  • It is important to understand what you are monitoring for but also what the numbers indicate throughout your investigations process
  • Do not wait for the monitor to exhibit an audible alarm for you to realize you are in a bad place
  • Understanding what the digital numbers indicate are integral to everyday monitoring operations we may encounter during carbon monoxide incidents or natural gas leak investigations
inspection procedures
INSPECTION PROCEDURES
  • Pre-Use Inspection
    • The “Pre-Use Inspection” should be done each morning during the engine’s daily inspection
    • Remove the unit into a fresh outside air environment
    • Turn the monitor on by depressing the “on/off” button
    • The monitor will perform its warm up operation
inspection procedures1
INSPECTION PROCEDURES
  • Pre-Use Inspection
    • Perform the “Fresh Air Set-Up” (in fresh air)
      • On the Industrial scientific follow prompt
      • On the MSA when starting up the ZERO square will flash.
      • While flashing press and hold the RESET button until the ZERO stays on.
      • Once the Zero disappears it will be ready for use
    • Allow the monitor to obtain its readings
    • Shut the monitor off by depressing the “on/off” button when finished
      • Be sure all normal values are restored before shutting off
pre use inspection
PRE-USE INSPECTION
  • Visual Check
    • Ensure there is no damage to the outer case of the device
    • Inspect the sensor filters to ensure they are intact and free of obstruction (on Industrial scientific quad gas and co monitors)
    • Inspect the top of the MSA monitors for dirt or thread damage.
pre use inspection1
PRE-USE INSPECTION
  • The DO NOTs of Pre-Use Inspection
    • Never turn on the device in the vicinity of apparatus that is running
    • Never intentionally expose the device to hazardous or toxic substances (ie: exhaust from diesel motor or natural gas stove burner)
    • Never shut off the device unless you are in a fresh air environment
purpose of monitoring
PURPOSE OF MONITORING
  • In the event of a suspected or confirmed hazardous atmosphere, the process of atmospheric monitoring shall be used to:
    • Begin Baseline Monitoring
    • Establish Operational Zones
    • Protect Responders and Public
    • Identify Chemical or Chemical Family
    • Observe Incident Mitigation Progress
monitoring considerations
MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
  • To gain better results while engaged in monitoring, the firefighter must adhere to following considerations while using the device
    • What you are attempting to monitor
    • Source of the hazardous atmospheric condition
    • Vapor Density Awareness
monitoring considerations1
MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
  • What you are attempting to monitor
    • What information was given at time of dispatch?
    • What information has the occupant made available upon arrival at the scene?
    • Is the information consistent with what you believe to be the problem?
monitoring considerations2
MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
  • Common Sources to Investigate for CO
    • Furnaces
    • Hot water heaters
    • Fireplaces
    • Kerosene heaters
monitoring considerations3
MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
  • Common Sources to Investigate for CO
    • Gasoline engines running inside garages or basements
    • BBQ grills
    • Faulty flues or exhaust pipes
monitoring considerations4
MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
  • Common Sources to Investigate for Flammable Gas
    • Furnaces
    • Hot water heaters
    • Fireplaces
    • Kerosene heaters
monitoring considerations5
MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
  • Vapor Density Awareness
    • Remember that you are more than likely monitoring the atmosphere for a substance that has taken the state of matter commonly known as a “gas”
    • Gases have the tendency to lie or rise in areas that correlate with their vapor density
    • When monitoring, be cognizant of the device’s position in relation to the substance’s vapor density
general monitoring considerations
GENERAL MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
  • Common Monitoring Errors
    • Wrong monitoring equipment
    • Activating the monitoring device once entry has been made into the hazardous environment
    • Monitoring technique is too fast
    • Not monitoring according to physical property of actual substance
monitoring techniques
MONITORING TECHNIQUES
  • To gain better results while engaged in monitoring, the firefighter must adhere to following techniques while using the device:
    • X and Y Axis Monitoring
monitoring techniques1

Y

X

MONITORING TECHNIQUES
  • X and Y Axis Monitoring
    • Within the room you are monitoring, place an imaginary X and Y axis directly in front of you and spot the device where the lines intersect
monitoring techniques2

Y

X

MONITORING TECHNIQUES
  • X and Y Axis Monitoring
    • Move the device from side to side on the “X” axis and up and down on the “Y” axis
monitoring techniques3

MSA SOLARIS

MONITORING TECHNIQUES
  • X and Y Axis Monitoring
    • As you move over the lines on the axis, move slowly allowing the device to sample and interpret the atmospheric counts

LELO2

0 20.3

COH2S

0 0

what can be monitored
WHAT CAN BE MONITORED
  • Capabilities of the Monitoring Device
    • CO: Carbon Monoxide
    • O2: Oxygen
    • H2S: Hydrogen Sulfide
    • %LEL**

**Conversion Charts available for various combustible gases, MSA ORION Operator’s Manual; Pages 7-3.

measuring combustible gas concentrations
MEASURING COMBUSTIBLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS
  • The Multi-gas Detectors are equipped to detect combustible gases in the atmosphere
  • Alarms sound when concentrations reach:
    • Alarm Set point
    • 100% LEL (Lower Explosive Limit), 5% CH4(methane)
measuring combustible gas concentrations1
MEASURING COMBUSTIBLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS
  • When the combustible gas indication reaches the Alarm Set point:
    • Alarm sounds
    • Alarm lights flash
  • To silence the alarm, press the RESET button
    • NOTE: The alarm will stay silent only if the alarm condition has cleared.
    • When the combustible gas indication reaches 100% LEL or 5% CH4, the LockAlarm™ circuit locks the combustible gas reading and alarm and:
      • Alarm sounds
      • Alarm lights flash
      • 100 appears on the display and flashes
      • This alarm cannot be reset with the RESET button
measuring combustible gas concentrations2
MEASURING COMBUSTIBLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS
  • The LEL Number
    • Lower Explosive Level (LEL) and Upper Explosive Level (UEL) comprise what is known as the flammable range
    • The UEL variable is what a fire company must understand and be prepared to interpret
    • UEL is dangerous being that it is the minimum variable in the flammable range
measuring combustible gas concentrations3
MEASURING COMBUSTIBLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS
  • The LEL Number
    • When the device monitors for LEL, it is calibrated to interpret pentane
    • When the monitor displays its reading it will present as a percentage (%)
    • The percentage is a percentage of the overall LEL
measuring combustible gas concentrations4
MEASURING COMBUSTIBLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS

EXAMPLE:

Engine 3 is monitoring for gasoline vapors. Gasoline’s LEL is 1.4%. During the monitoring operation, it is noted the LEL reads 4%. Being that our monitors are calibrated to pentane, a conversion needs to be computed. Per the MSA ORION Operator’s Manual Cross Reference chart, the responder must multiply the LEL % reading by 1.3. So, multiply 0.04 x 1.3. The result should equate to 0.05. This means there is 5% percent of the total 1.4% in the ambient atmosphere.

measuring combustible gas concentrations5
MEASURING COMBUSTIBLE GAS CONCENTRATIONS

INSTURMENT WITH ACTIVATED LEL DISPLAY

measuring toxic gas concetrations
MEASURING TOXIC GAS CONCETRATIONS
  • The Multi-gas Detectors are equipped to detect:
    • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
  • When the alarm set point is reached for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S):
    • Alarm Sounds
    • Alarm Lights flash
measuring toxic gas concetrations1
MEASURING TOXIC GAS CONCETRATIONS
  • Carbon Monoxide is measured in “parts per million” (PPM)
  • PPM is the dose per million units of volume
    • In this case, PPM refers the dose of CO per million units of air
measuring toxic gas concetrations2
MEASURING TOXIC GAS CONCETRATIONS

Example:

1 PPM = 1/1,000,000 particle per volume

1 PPM is 0.0001% of the atmosphere by volume

1 PPM

1,000,000 PPM

measuring toxic gas concetrations3
MEASURING TOXIC GAS CONCETRATIONS

Example:

Engine 3 is dispatched for a carbon monoxide investigation. While monitoring the atmosphere, the device indicates there is 42 PPM of CO.

If we take 42/1,000,000 we calculate that as 0.000042 or 0.042%

0.042% of the atmosphere is comprised of CO

measuring toxic gas concetrations4
MEASURING TOXIC GAS CONCETRATIONS
  • Be cognizant that Carbon Monoxide has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 35 PPM
  • The “35 PPM” variable represents conditions under which it is believed a firefighter may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect
  • The 35 PPM is only an exposure guideline not a standard
  • If you suspect you are going to be exposed to any level of CO, it is advisable to protect your respiratory tract by donning SCBA
measuring combustible toxic gas concentrations
MEASURING COMBUSTIBLE TOXIC GAS CONCENTRATIONS

INSTURMENT WITH ACTIVATED TOXIC GAS DISPLAY

co incident response guidelines1
CO INCIDENT RESPONSE GUIDELINES
  • CO Investigation with no Illness
    • Still Engine
      • Non-emergency response
  • CO Investigation with Illness
    • Full Still
      • Engine and Ambulance
        • Emergency response
co incident operations guidelines1
CO INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Carbon Monoxide Incidents
    • Remove the unit into a fresh outside air environment
    • Turn the monitor on by depressing the “on/off” button
    • The monitor will perform its warm up operation
    • Perform the “Fresh Air Set-Up” (in fresh air)
      • On the Industrial scientific follow prompt
      • On the MSA when starting up the ZERO square will flash.
      • While flashing press and hold the REST button until the ZERO stays on.
      • Once the Zero disappears it will be ready for use
co incident operations guidelines2
CO INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Carbon Monoxide Incidents
    • Allow the monitor to obtain its readings
    • Begin the investigation within the occupancy
    • Bring the device to a fresh air environment and allow all readings to return to normal
      • H2S, CO, and LEL should all indicate “0 PPM”
      • O2 should indicate between 19.5% and 23.5%
    • Shut the monitor off by depressing the “on/off” button when finished
co incident operations guidelines3
CO INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • CO without illness
    • Ensure firefighter and resident safety
    • Investigate the occupancy for the presence of CO
    • Monitor the present level of CO
    • Determine a source or location of the CO release
co incident operations guidelines4
CO INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • CO without illness
    • Discontinue the release of CO
    • Ventilate appropriately
    • Re-monitor the occupancy and note any improvement, worsening, or unchanged CO levels
    • Document the incident accordingly
co incident operations guidelines5
CO INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • CO with illness
    • Immediately remove the person(s) from the suspected potential exposures
    • Triage and assess the patients
      • Treat per SFV EMS System Protocols
      • Transport if necessary
    • Observe use of proper personal protective equipment
      • Level “D” structural firefighting gear
    • Investigate the occupancy for the presence of CO
    • Monitor the present level of CO
co incident operations guidelines6
CO INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • CO with illness
    • Determine a source or location of the CO release
    • Discontinue the release of CO
    • Ventilate appropriately
    • Re-monitor the occupancy and note any improvement, worsening, or unchanged CO levels
    • Document the incident accordingly
natural gas leak incident response guidelines1
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT RESPONSE GUIDELINES
  • Outside & Inside gas leak
    • Full Still Engine, Squad, ARFF961, Command, Ambulance.
      • Emergency response
natural gas leak incident operations guidelines1
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Natural Gas Leak Incidents
    • Remove the unit into a fresh outside air environment
    • Turn the monitor on by depressing the “on/off” button
    • The monitor will perform its warm up operation
    • Perform the “Fresh Air Set-Up” (in fresh air)
      • On the Industrial scientific follow prompt
      • On the MSA when starting up the ZERO square will flash.
      • While flashing press and hold the REST button until the ZERO stays on.
      • Once the Zero disappears it will be ready for use.
natural gas leak incident operations guidelines2
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Natural Gas Leak Incidents
    • Allow the monitor to obtain its readings
    • Begin the investigation within the occupancy
    • Bring the device to a fresh air environment and allow all readings to return to normal
      • H2S, CO, and LEL should all indicate “0 PPM”
      • O2 should indicate between 19.5% and 23.5%
    • Shut the monitor off by depressing the “on/off” button when finished
natural gas leak incident operations guidelines3
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Outside Gas Leak
    • Observe use of proper personal protective equipment
      • Level “D” structural firefighting gear
    • Isolate area
    • Ensure firefighter and resident safety
    • Investigate the occupancy for the presence of gas
    • Make suppression considerations if exposures exist
    • Monitor the present level of combustible gas
    • Determine a source or location of the gas release
natural gas leak incident operations guidelines4
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Outside Gas Leak
    • Discontinue the release of gas
    • Ventilate appropriately
    • Re-monitor the occupancy and note any improvement, worsening, or unchanged gas levels
    • Notify NiCor
    • Document the incident accordingly
natural gas leak incident operations guidelines5
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Inside Gas Leak
    • Isolate area
    • Immediately remove the person(s) from the suspected potential exposures
    • Triage and assess the patients
      • Treat per SFV EMS System Protocols
      • Transport if necessary
natural gas leak incident operations guidelines6
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Inside Gas Leak
    • Observe use of proper personal protective equipment
      • Level “D” structural firefighting gear
    • Determine the need for water supply
    • Investigate the occupancy for the presence of gas
    • Monitor the present level of gas
natural gas leak incident operations guidelines7
NATURAL GAS LEAK INCIDENT OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
  • Inside Gas Leak
    • Determine a source or location of the gas release
    • Discontinue the release of gas
    • Ventilate appropriately
    • Re-monitor the occupancy and note any improvement, worsening, or unchanged gas levels
    • Document the incident accordingly
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