Pre-colonial India 1206-1707. Pre-colonial India. Key institutions in place Larger population, more wealth & power than Persian Safadivs or Ottoman Turks Long-term development in trade, finance, culture & society ready in place for the British. The Ram Bagh Garden, Agra. Pre-colonial India.
The Ram Bagh Garden, Agra
Mughal Emperor Akbar
Ibn Battuta (1603-1639) Moroccan Traveller , Chief judge of Delhi in the 14th C
I approached the sultan, who took my hand and shook it, and continuing to hold it addressed me most affably, saying in Persian, “This is a blessing, your arrival is blessed, be at ease; I shall be compassionate to you and give you such favours that your fellow-countrymen will hear of it and come to join you.” Then he asked me where I came from and I said to him, “From the land of the Maghrib.” Every time he said any encouraging word to me I kissed his hand , until I had kissed it seven times, and after he had given me a robe of honour, I withdrew.
He was a direct descendant of the Turkish Ghengis Khan
&Timur from Tamerlane.
Shah Jehan 1627 - 1658The Master Builder
Deposed in 1858.
India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown.
This brought the end of the Mughal Empire.
Far-reaching political, economic, & social reconfigurations (rearrangements/adaptations):
*denotes sources from which pictures were obtained with descriptions