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“Development tools and guidelines for the promotion of the sustainable treatment and reuse in the agricultural production in the Mediterranean countries”

TASK 3:

“Analysis of Best Practices and Success Stories”

Dr. Mª Dolores Hidalgo and Dr. Rubén Irusta

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TASK 3: Report Overview

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  • Recommendations of the Water Framework Directive
  • Current situation on wastewater treatment and agricultural reuse in the Mediterranean region
  • Problems associated with reclaimed water reuse projects
  • Good reuse practises
  • Selection of wastewater reclamation facilities
  • The cost of wastewater reclamation and reuse
  • Success stories on agricultural reuse
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • Recommendations of the Water Framework Directive
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Recommendations of the Water Framework Directive

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  • The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC of 23 October 2000) combines protection of ecological status with long-term water use and sustainable development.
  • Demand management and reduced water consumption, through the use of water charging and other economic incentives as well as the use of less water consuming technology, re-use of waste waters, changes in crop choices and development of efficient irrigation systems must be explored.
  • The Water Framework Directive should be seen as an incentive for finding solutions, which build on a genuinely better balanced between exploitation of available resources and protection and improvement of the natural resources and natural ecology.
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Recommendations of the Water Framework Directive

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  • Under the new Water Framework Directive, water cannot be abstracted, transferred or diverted in large quantities without a throughout examination of the possible environmental impacts.
  • This is likely to reduce transfer of water and give incentives towards a mix of other instruments, including demand management, charging, recycling and re-use of water, development of less water consuming technologies and agricultural practices, land use policies, etc.
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • Current situation on wastewater treatment and agricultural reuse in the Mediterranean region
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Reuse in the Mediterranean region

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  • In Mediterranean countries there are many coastal and southern regions where there is a severe pressure on freshwater resources, due to low and seasonally uneven precipitation and high run-off. In some cases this is exacerbated by especially high demand from tourism and agriculture during the summer months. The main reasons are very high population density and low to medium precipitation.
  • The most off-stream water uses in Mediterranean countries are industrial cooling, agriculture for irrigation and domestic and industrial process water. On the other hand, there major losses from water delivered to agriculture for irrigation and domestic consumption.
  • Studied cases: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Egypt, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Slovenia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey.
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • Problems associated with reclaimed water reuse projects
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Problems associated wastewater reuse

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  • Presence of pathogens in water, chemical contaminants or heavy metals because of insufficient treatment.
  • The method used to apply the treated wastewater:
  • The real cost of the projects are usually considerably higher than the estimated previously. This is in large part a result of insufficient planning before design and construction of water reclamation projects.
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Problems associated wastewater reuse

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  • Costs of the water vs traditional sources: the cost of water has to be acceptable for farmers.
  • Social acceptance (farmers, retailers and consumers): This is the most sensitive area of this topic. Farmers are not going to reuse water, if their product cannot be sold. Consumers will not buy products where reuse water was used unless it is proven to be safe.
  • Social issues play a significant role in water reuse initiatives and should be adequately addressed. With adequate political will accompanied by awareness programmes these cultural, religious and social objections can be overcome.
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • Good reuse practises
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Good practises

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  • Reclaimed wastewater must only be reused for the uses for which permit was issued.
  • When reclaimed water quality does not meet the fixed standards, reuse must cease.
  • Sprinkler irrigation should not take place in strong winds.
  • Quality monitoring and process controls should be supported.
  • Routine inspections of reclaimed water facilities, including facilities located on the property of end users.
  • Recognition that distribution of reclaimed water for non-potable uses could potentially come into contact with the public, and that such contact could have consequences for public health.
  • Compliance with all applicable requirements for water reclamation, and storage, transmission, distribution, and reuse, of reclaimed water.
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • Selection of wastewater reclamation facilities
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Selection of facilities

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  • A number of parameters should be considered when choosing the appropriate technology:

- economic

- institutional and political,

  • - climatic,
  • - environmental,
  • - land availability /properties
  • - sociocultural,
  • - and other local ones.
  • Once these factors have been taken into account the most cost-effective system should be selected, unless the population being served is willing to pay more.
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Selection of facilities

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  • Considerations when “screening” alternative processes for (a) developing and (b) developed countries (Source: Tsagarakis et al., 2001).
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • The cost of wastewater reclamation and reuse
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Reclamation costs

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  • Wastewater reclamation system costs are a function of facility capacity, end-use option and treatment process configuration.
  • Costs can be identified estimating:

- facility construction costs,

- equipment purchases and

- operation and maintenance fees.

  • Initially, reclamation systems have to be analysed in terms of individual components based on design criteria. Cost data are derived for each element of a reclamation system at various capacity levels and unit sizes.
  • Site development and electrical cost are assumed as 10 and 15 percent of the total facility costs respectively.
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Reclamation costs

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  • Reclamation system annual cost are comprised of treatment and distribution facility personnel salaries, operating fees (recurring power and chemical cost) and maintenance cost (equipment repairs and replacements).
  • Personnel requirements are a function of facility size and complexity.
  • Maintenance cost (spare parts, replacements) are estimated generally as a percentage of equipment first cost (e.g., 5 percent).
  • For pipelines and storage tanks, maintenance costs are projected as two percent of capital costs.
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • Success stories on agricultural reuse
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TASK 3: Overview

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  • Success stories on agricultural reuse of urban wastewater in Mediterranean countries ….(48 cases)

- Selected cases in Cyprus (2)

  • - Selected cases in France (3)
  • - Selected cases in Greece (1)
  • - Selected cases in Israel (4)
  • - Selected cases in Italy (2)
  • - Selected cases in Jordan (5)
  • - Selected cases in Lebanon (2)
  • - Selected cases in Morocco (4)
  • - Selected cases in Palestine (2)
  • - Selected cases in Portugal (1)
  • - Selected cases in Spain (6)
  • - Selected cases in Tunisia (3)
  • - Selected cases in Turkey (13)
  • Other good examples on agricultural reuse of wastewater all over the world …(11 cases)

- Selected cases in Australia (3)

  • - Selected cases in Kuwait (1)
  • - Selected cases in Mexico (1)
  • - Selected cases in Saudi Arabia (1)
  • - Selected cases in USA (5)
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  • SUCCESS STORIES
    • MEDA partners contributions
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MEDA partners contribution

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ITU (Turkey):

  • No. 1:Mugla, Bodrum-Golturkbuku (Turkey)
  • No. 2:Mugla, Bodrum-Bitez (Turkey)
  • No. 3: Duzce-Merke (Turkey)
  • No. 4: Izmir-Karaburun (Turkey)
  • No. 5:Bursa-Inegol (Turkey)
  • No. 6: Istanbul-Pasakoy (Turkey)
  • No. 7:Afyon-Merkez (Turkey)
  • No. 8: Manisa–Akhisar (Turkey)
  • No. 9:Manisa–Alasehir (Turkey)
  • No. 10:Antalya-Kumkoy (Turkey)
  • No. 11: Antalya-Titreyengol (Turkey)
  • No. 12: Samsun-Ondokuz Mayis (Turkey)

* All information was provided from the treatment plant representatives

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MEDA partners contribution

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METU (Turkey):

  • No. 1:Gaziantep (Turkey)
  • No. 2:Viranşehir (under construction, Turkey)
  • No. 3: Siverek (under construction, Turkey)
  • No. 4: Dan Region Project (Tel Aviv, Southern Israel)
  • No. 5: Kishon Scheme (Haifa, Israel)
  • No. 6: Picton reuse scheme (Australia)
  • No. 7: Rouse Hill (Sydney, Australia)
  • No. 8: The Virginia Pipeline Project

(Adelaide, South Australia)

  • No. 9: Almería (South of Spain)
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MEDA partners contribution

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METU (Turkey):

  • No. 10:Empuriabrava reuse system (Northern Costa Brava, Girona, Spain)
  • No. 11: Limassol (Cyprus)
  • No. 12: Al-Samra (Jordan)
  • No. 13:Ramtha Wastewater Treatment Plant (Jordan)
  • No. 14: The Monterey Wastewater Reclamation Study for Agriculture (California)
  • No. 15: Tallahassee reuse system (Florida)
  • No. 16: La Soukra irrigation area (Tunisia)
  • No. 17: Mont Saint Michel (France)
  • No. 18: Clermont Ferrand (France)
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MEDA partners contribution

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ARI / Epsilon Consulting Ltd. (Cyprus):

  • No. 1: Larnaca WTP (Meneou Area beside the International Airport of Cyprus)
  • No. 2: AyiaNapa - Paralimni WTP(Cavo Greco area, Cyprus)

*All information was provided from the treatment plant representatives

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MEDA partners contribution

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JUST (Jordan):

  • No. 1:Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) & Wadi Hassan Pilot

Projects (WHPP) (near Irbid City, North of Jordan).

  • No. 2:Wadi Mousa Pilot Project (near Petra City, South of Jordan)
  • No. 3:Aqaba Pilot Project (Aqaba City, South of Jordan)
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MEDA partners contribution

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AUB (Lebanon):

  • No. 1: Hasbaya Plant (near Hasbaya City, South of Lebanon)
  • No. 2: Yanta Plant (Yanta Village, Lebanon)
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MEDA partners contribution

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UCD (Morocco):

  • No. 1: Ben Slimane reuse system (South of Rabat, Morocco)
  • No. 2:Ville de Drargua Wastewater Treatment Plans (Morocco)
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MEDA partners contribution

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MENA (Palestine):

  • No. 1:Wastewater reuse in Al-Beirah (Palestine)
  • No. 2:Vathia Gonia (Cyprus)
  • No. 3: Wastewater reuse in Dariyah

(Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia)

  • No. 4:Wastewater reuse in Kuwait City

(Kuwait)

  • No. 5: Wastewater reuse in Boca Roca (Southern of Florida, USA)
  • No. 6: Wastewater Irrigation in Guanajuato City (Mexico)
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  • MEDAWARE PROYECT TASK 3
    • Dissemination activities
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Dissemination activities

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Congress:

  • “Effective practices on treated wastewater reuse”

International Workshop on Implementation and Operation of Municipal Wastewater Reuse Plants - Thessaloniki, Greece - March 2004

  • “Analysis of Best Practices and Succes Stories for Sustainable Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in the Agricultural Production in the Mediterranenan Countries”

Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technolory REWAS 2004 - Madrid, Spain - September, 2004

  • “Reutilización de agua residual tratada de origen municipal en agricultura”

Environmental National Congress CONAMA VII -Madrid, Spain - November, 2004

  • “Tratamiento y Reutilización de Aguas Residuales en Agricultura en los Países Mediterráneos: El proyecto MEDAWARE”

3rd International Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water EFFICIENT 2005 - Santiago de Chile - March, 2005

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Dissemination activities

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Papers:

  • “Sustainable and Cost-Effective Municipal Wastewater Reclamation: Treated Effluent Reuse in the Agricultural Production”

International Journal of Environment and Pollution – (Accepted)

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... Thank you

CARTIF- Castilla y León Technology Park, 205

47151 Boecillo (Valladolid) – SPAIN

TEL.: (34) 983 548 917 E-mail: [email protected]

FAX: (34) 983 54 65 21 web: www.cartif.es/medioambiente

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