Periodic table review activity
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 41

Periodic Table Review Activity PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 47 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Periodic Table Review Activity. Definition. What does PERIODIC mean? A repeating pattern Mendeleev left some spaces in his table because not all elements lined up according to atomic mass. He used info he knew about surrounding elements to PREDICT properties and masses of unknown elements.

Download Presentation

Periodic Table Review Activity

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Periodic table review activity

Periodic TableReview Activity


Definition

Definition

  • What does PERIODIC mean?

    • A repeating pattern

  • Mendeleev left some spaces in his table because not all elements lined up according to atomic mass. He used info he knew about surrounding elements to PREDICT properties and masses of unknown elements.

    How about that!


Mendeleev 1869

Mendeleev (1869)

  • Organized table by...

    • ATOMIC MASS

  • Thought pattern must exist between all elements

  • Elements in columns show similar properties…

    • Both physical and chemical!

  • Predicted properties of “missing” elements


Moseley c 1914

Moseley (c. 1914)

  • rearranged table by ...

    • ATOMIC NUMBER

  • Determined atomic number of elements by determining number of protons in element


Seaborg 1944

Seaborg (1944)

  • Rearranged Periodic Table with...

    • Lanthanide and Actinide Series pulled out/separated from main Periodic Table

  • Discovered countless isotopes & 10 new elements


Information from periodic table

Information from Periodic Table

  • Atomic number

  • Chemical symbol

  • Atomic mass

  • Chemical name

  • Plus countless other information, depending on the table used!


Columns of table groups or families

Columns of Table = groups or families

  • Newer designation: 1-18

  • 8 main families labeled with Roman Numeral and letter ‘A’

  • Elements within the same family have similar but not identical properties

  • Electron configuration varies periodically (pattern of valence electrons)

    • family#1-2-13-14-15-16-17-18

      • or IA-IIA-IIIA-IVA-VA-VIA-VIIA-VIIIA

  • valence e-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8


  • Groups families gives valence e

    16

    18

    1

    2

    15

    17

    14

    13

    GROUPS/FAMILIES GIVES # VALENCE E-


    Definition1

    Definition

    • Valence electrons

      • electrons found in the outermost energy level

      • use the group number to determine number of valence electrons


    Names of families

    Group 1 or IA

    Group 2 or IIA

    Group13 or IIIA

    Group 14 or IVA

    Group 15 or VA

    Group 16 or VIA

    Group 17 or VIIA

    Group 18 or VIIIA

    Groups 3-12

    Lanthanide & Actinide series

    Alkali metals

    Alkaline Earth metals

    Boron family

    Carbon family

    Nitrogen family

    Chalogens

    Halogens

    Noble gases

    Transition metals

    Inner transition metals

    Names of Families


    Rows of table periods

    Rows of Table = periods

    • Properties are not alike within a period

    • 7 periods = number of energy levels in atom

    • 2 additional rows at bottom of table are Lanthanide and Actinide series and belong to periods 6 and 7


    Period energy levels

    PERIOD = # ENERGY LEVELS

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7


    Trends

    Trends

    • Valence number

    • Charge of ion

    • Tendency to gain or lose electrons

    • Atomic size (radius)

    • Ionization energy

    • Electron affinity

    • Electronegativity

    • Reactivity

    • Metallic vs. nonmetallic properties


    Periodic law

    The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number.

    The tendency of atoms to gain or lose electrons so they acquire 8 electrons in their outer energy level for stability

    Octet Rule

    PeriodicLaw


    Ionization energy

    energy required to remove an electron from an atom; to form a cation

    kJ/mol

    attraction of an atom for an added electron; to form an anion

    kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy

    Electron Affinity


    Atomic radius

    estimate of the size of an atom

    distance between the nucleus and the likely location of electron cloud

    ability of an atom to compete with other atoms for electrons shared between them

    i.e. who wants them more?

    Atomic Radius

    Electro-negativity


    Across a period

    Across a Period

    • radius decreases

    • ionization energy increases

    • electronegativity increases

    • b/c

      • number of protons increases, as does number of electrons…

      • number of valence electrons increases…

      • so EMF increases…

      • so valence electrons held more tightly…


    Atomic radius1

    Atomic Radius

    PERIOD 3

    PERIOD 2


    Ionization energy1

    Ionization Energy

    PERIOD 2

    PERIOD 3


    Electronegativity

    Electronegativity

    PERIOD 2

    PERIOD 3


    Down a family

    Down a Family

    • radius increases

    • ionization energy decreases

    • electronegativity decreases

    • b/c

      • number of energy levels increases…

      • so valence electrons held less tightly b/c further away from nucleus…


    Atomic radius2

    Atomic Radius

    Family IA

    Family IIA


    Ionization energy2

    Ionization Energy

    Family IIA

    Family IA


    Electronegativity1

    Electronegativity

    Family IIA

    Family IA


    Alkaline earth metals lab

    Alkaline Earth Metals Lab

    • An element that is highly reactive tends to gain or lose electrons very easily.

    • A precipitate is an insoluble solid formed as a result of a chemical reaction.

    • In this lab, magnesium formed the least number of precipitates, while barium formed the greatest number of precipitates.

    • Why do you think reactivity increases down a family???


    Regions of the table

    REGIONS OF THE TABLE

    One more!

    NONMETALS

    METALLOIDS

    METALS


    Metals

    Metals

    • Found to LEFT of zigzag line on table

    • Good conductors of heat & electricity

    • Malleable (can hammer into thin sheet without breaking)

    • Ductile (can pull into thin wire without breaking)

    • High melting & boiling points

    • Shiny in luster

    • Tend to lose electrons


    Nonmetals

    Nonmetals

    • Found to RIGHT of zigzag line on table

    • Poor conductors of heat & electricity

    • Brittle when solid (break irregularly)

    • Dull in luster

    • Low melting & boiling points

    • Tend to gain electrons


    Metalloids aka semi metals

    Metalloids aka Semi-Metals

    • Found along both sides of zigzag line, with exception of Al and Po

    • Properties of both metals & nonmetals

    • Okay conductors of heat & electricity

    • Shiny or dull


    Who am i

    Who am I?

    • Use the clues and a periodic table to predict the element.

    • The number of clues is shown in the lower right corner.


    1 who am i

    1. Who am I?

    • Very good ability to conduct electricity

    • Never found alone in nature

    • When combined with other elements, usually give up 1 valence electron

    • Only one letter in symbol

    4 clues


    2 who am i

    2. Who am I?

    • More valence electrons than oxygen

    • More protons than calcium

    • Fewer protons than krypton

    3 clues


    3 who am i

    3. Who am I?

    • Poor conductor

    • Usually found as a gas

    • Do not bond well with others

    • Sometimes found in signs outside restaurants

    4 clues


    4 who am i

    4. Who am I?

    • Second lowest electronegativity of period

    • One of most reactive in family

    • Not radioactive

    • Add 50 protons and I’m now another element in my family

    4 clues


    5 who am i

    5. Who am I?

    • Usually found as a gas

    • Very reactive

    • Lightest element in family

    • Often form -1 ion

    4 clues


    6 who am i

    6. Who am I?

    • Radioactive

    • Highest atomic radius in family

    • Usually form -2 ion

    3 clues


    7 who am i

    7. Who am I?

    • Never found alone or unbonded in nature

    • Most commonly form +2 ion

    • Second highest number of protons in family

    3 clues


    8 who am i

    8. Who am I?

    • All other members of family are metals

    • Most abundant element in universe

    2 clues


    9 who am i

    9. Who am I?

    • Metals, nonmetals, and semi-metals all found in family

    • Same number of protons as the sum of the protons in the two elements directly above

    2 clues


    10 who am i

    10. Who am I?

    • Highest ionization energy in family

    • Family contains metals, nonmetals, and semi-metals

    • Can form positive or negative ion

    3 clues


    That s all folks

    That’s All Folks!

    Once you have finished, check your answers with a peer.


  • Login