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Incorporating Frederickson’s Broaden-and-Build Model into Motivational Interviewing Groups . Karen Ingersoll 1 and C hris W agner 2 1 University of V irginia Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences 2 Virginia Commonwealth University

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incorporating frederickson s broaden and build model into motivational interviewing groups

Incorporating Frederickson’s Broaden-and-Build Model into Motivational Interviewing Groups

Karen Ingersoll1 and Chris Wagner2

1University of Virginia

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences

2Virginia Commonwealth University

Department of Rehabilitation Counseling

Symposium presentation at the

3rd World Congress on Positive Psychology,

Los Angeles, California

Saturday, June 29, 2013

frederickson s broaden and build model
Frederickson’s Broaden and Build Model
  • Evolutionary perspective on positive emotions
    • Negative emotions have obvious functions in response to dangers
    • Alert, Fight, Flight
  • Positive emotions have functions beyond indicating well-being
    • Experienced during times of no danger
    • Build resources for the individual and tribe
    • Spiral up from interest to hope, creativity, joy
    • Can lead to broader views, persistent efforts
    • Over time, related to generative efforts that build infrastructure and culture
psychotherapy and negative emotion
Psychotherapy and Negative Emotion

People seeking help feel stuck

People seeking help feel demoralized

Traditionally focuses on distress and/or problems

Typically seek a reason in the past for current negative emotions

positive emotions
Positive emotions

“…broadenpeople\'s momentary thought-action

repertoires, widening the array of the thoughts and actions that come to mind (Fredrickson, 1998; Fredrickson & Branigan, 2001)...”

Frederickson, 2001, American Psychologist, 56(3): 218–226.

psychotherapy and positive emotion
Psychotherapy and Positive Emotion
  • Can focus on building strength, moving toward better future
  • Motivational Interviewing
    • Does not seek deep insight from history
    • Focuses on present and near future
    • Does not install strengths or skills into a “damaged” person
    • Relies on eliciting from within a person
    • Uses client-centered (existential-humanistic) perspective
individual and group mi similarities
Individual and Group MI Similarities

Motivate change through resolving ambivalence

Balance client-centered and focus elements

Avoid instructive, prescriptive, or directive clinician behaviors

Balance focusing on current issues with staying open to new directions

motivational interviewing groups
Motivational Interviewing Groups

Integrate

MI techniques & strategies with

group psychotherapy processes

integrating mi techniques strategies with group processes
Integrating MI Techniques & Strategies with Group Processes
  • Group MI uses similar techniques as individual MI
    • Open questions, Affirmations, Reflections, Summaries
  • Group MI uses similar strategies as individual MI
    • Exploring, Envisioning, Hypothetical change, Overt planning
integrating mi techniques strategies with group processes1
Integrating MI Techniques & Strategies with Group Processes
  • Group MI uses group therapy processes
    • Linking members’ experiences and themes
    • Encourages group member ownership of the group
    • Encourages positive social norms within the group
      • Mutual respect
      • Constructive interactions
      • Providing support
four phase model of mi groups
Four Phase Model of MI Groups
  • Engaging the Group
  • Exploring Perspectives
  • Broadening Perspectives
  • Moving into Action
four phase model of mi groups1
Four Phase Model of MI Groups
  • Engaging the Group
    • Attending to group climate of inclusion, welcoming, “we”
    • Decontaminating the referral process
    • Developing working relationships and norms within the group
    • Eliciting group guidelines
four phase model of mi groups2
Four Phase Model of MI Groups
  • Exploring Perspectives
    • Open the group with a focus on the whole person, not the “problem”
    • Exploring participants’ perspectives on their lives and issues
      • Exploring Lifestyles
      • Exploring Ambivalence
      • Exploring Values
four phase model of mi groups3
Four Phase Model of MI Groups
  • Broadening Perspectives
    • Envisioning a more satisfying future
    • Considering options for change
    • Exploring and enhancing confidence
four phase model of mi groups4
Four Phase Model of MI Groups
  • Moving into Action
    • Defining, planning and implementing changes to improve life
      • Importance/Confidence review
      • Hypothetical change
      • Change planning
      • Strengthening commitment to change
      • Getting started
      • Dealing with challenges and setbacks
summary broadening and building across mi group phases
Summary: Broadening and Building Across MI Group Phases
  • Engaging the Group
    • welcoming, eliciting
  • Exploring Perspectives
    • holistic exploration
  • Broadening Perspectives
    • envisioning, options, increasing hope/confidence
  • Moving into Action
    • embracing life change, committing, beginning anew
structuring mi groups
Structuring MI Groups
  • Group types
    • Support, Psychoeducational, Psychotherapeutic
  • Structured to unstructured
  • Homogeneity vs. heterogeneity
  • Time-limited vs. open-ended duration
  • Closed membership to open enrollment
references
References

Wagner, C.C. & Ingersoll, K.S. (2013). Motivational Interviewing in Groups. New York: Guilford Press.

Barbara L. Frederickson, (2004). The Broaden and Build Theory of Positive Emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 359 (1449): 1367-1377.

Barbara L. Frederickson, (2001). The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3): 218–226.

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