Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events
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Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events. S. Masson 1 , S. Dasso 2 , P. Démoulin 1 and K.-L. Klein 1. 1 LESIA - Observatoire de Paris 2 IAFE - Universitad de Buenos Aires. Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

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Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

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Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson1,

S. Dasso2, P. Démoulin1 and K.-L. Klein1

1 LESIA - Observatoire de Paris

2 IAFE - Universitad de Buenos Aires

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

How can we constrain acceleration of relativistic protons ?

Earth

 Multi wavelengths analysis

Beams of non-thermal electrons : radio emission

X-rays and -rays: Impact

Relativistic protons

Parker spiral

Synchrotron emission: relativistic e-.

GLE measurements

Shock waves: radio emission

From Earth measurements, go back to Sun across the Parker spiral (1.2 AU)

 Constrain the acceleration regions of relativistic particles

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

The timing and connection problem

 Delay between the arrival time of the first relativistic protons at the Earth (=ground level enhancement or GLE) and various electromagnetic signatures of particle acceleration.

Carmichael (1972), Kodama et al. (1977), Cliver et al. (1982), Kahler et al. (2003)

Parker spiral connection

 Active regions associated to GLEs not always Earth-connected by the Parker spiral.

Cliver et al. (1982), Stoker (1994), Gopalswamy (2005)

Why is there a systematic delay, and what determines the magnetic connection ?

www.nmdb.eu

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

The timing and connection problem

 How to explain the delay and the connection problem

- Acceleration by the CME’s shock high in the corona

- Delayed acceleration of energetic particles during the flare

- Particle diffusion during the interplanetary transport

Kahler (1994), Cliver et al (2004), Reames (2009)

Klein et al. (1999), Li et al. (2009)

Wibberenz & Cane (2006), Cane (2003), Richardson et al. (1991)

 based on the propagation of particles along the Parker spiral

Should we always consider the Parker spiral as the real connection between the acceleration site and Earth ?

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Detailed temporal analysis

 GLE on 20 January 2005

Common release of radio emitting electron beams and relativistic protons

Most energetic protons > 300 MeV and electrons are accelerated during the second episode 06:45:30 UT

Injection time

at 06:46 UT

A longer interplanetary path length

Masson et al. (2009)

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)

Interplanetary magnetic

field lines

emission

particles

Earth

Earth

 Sun-Earth connections and IP path length

Interplanetary coronal mass ejection or magnetic cloud

D > 1.2 UA

Parker spiral

D ~ 1.2 AU

 Which IMF for particle propagation ?

Measurements of the magnetic field and plasma parameters

Magnetic structure of the IP space

Length travelled by energetic particles

Injection time of energetic particles

In-situ particles measurements

(Velocity dispersion analysis)

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Magnetic structure of IMF during GLE

GLE

B ~ 6 nT

Parker spiral (quiet IMF)

  • - B non coherent, Bmag~ 5 nT

  • T exp~ Tobs~ 2.105 K

  • p~ 1

 ~ 0°

(Lopez & Freeman, 1986; Elliot et al., 2005)

 ~ - 45°

Texp

Tobs

Propagation along the Parker spiral

in a quiescent solar wind

p~ 1

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Magnetic structure of IMF during GLE

GLE

Back

Interplanetary coronal mass ejection

ICME

  • Increase of Bmag , high coherent Bmag

  • - T exp> 2 Tobs

  • - p < 1

( Liu et al., 2005; Ebert et al., 2009)

discontinuity of B components:

 B partially reconnected with the SW

Texp> 2 Tobs

Backof ICME or MC

(Dasso et al., 2006, 2007)

 < 1

Propagation of particles in the back

For the last 10 GLEs of the 23rd solar cycle

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Interplanetary length and solar release time

 Velocity dispersion analysis

26 December 2001:

Energetic protons

(12-40 MeV) SoHO/ERNE

 Assuming that all particles are injected simultaneously:

(www.srl.utu.fi/erne_data/)

Interplanetary length

Solar release time

Relativistic protons (4 GeV)

Neutron monitor

Performing on 7 events

(missing data)

(Moraal et al., 2009)

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Interplanetary length versus magnetic structure

Consistent results between path length and

interplanetary magnetic structure

(7 GLEs)

28 /10 /03: relativistic particles travel ~ 2 AU

(Miroshnichenko et al., 2005)

2006 December 13: Interplanetary structure like Parker spiral and a travelled length of 2 AU (bad determination ?? shock acceleration ???)

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Solar release time versus electron type III injection

Timing comparison of the injection time of protons at the Sun

and

the interval during which electrons are injected and produce type III burst (ttypeIII background + 3)

event

Protonsare injected during

electron injection

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

Conclusion

 Results

From two independent studies: - magnetic structure of the IMF - velocity dispersion analysis (travelled length)

 consistent results for interplanetary length and the injection time

 What is new for the understanding of solar relativistic particles?

 Interplanetary geometry plays a crucial role in the timingproblem.

 An essential constraint to associate the solar phenomena to particles

acceleration

  • What is the effects of the magnetic structure on the particle transport ?

  • Development of model to compute the MC / ICME lengths

  • Detailed analysis of some events, taking into account the IMF structure

(Kahler, Krucker & Szabo, 2010)

Interplanetary magnetic field and relativistic solar particle events

S. Masson - 10th RHESSI Workshop - Annapolis - August 2010


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