The progressive movement
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The Progressive Movement. The end of the 19 th Century saw economic and urban growth along with a widening gap between the rich and the poor. The Progressive movement focused on reforming urban problems such as workers rights, poor sanitation, and corrupt politicians

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The Progressive Movement

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The progressive movement

The Progressive Movement

The end of the 19th Century saw economic and urban growth along with a widening gap between the rich and the poor.

The Progressive movement focused on reforming urban problems such as workers rights, poor sanitation, and corrupt politicians

Progressives were usually native born, middle class or upper class, and college educated people.

Journalist called muckrakers uncovered urban exploitation in investigative reports.

The Social Gospel held that Christianity had an obligation to help the poor and less fortunate.


Famous female progressives

Famous Female Progressives

  • Ida B. Wells was an African American woman who spoke out against injustices such as lynching and segregation. Wells also wrote and spoke in favor of the expansion of women’s rights including suffrage.

  • Susan B. Anthony was an advocate for the rights of women including suffrage and the rights of women to own land and retain their wages.

  • Jane Addams was also an advocate for Women’s rights including suffrage. Addams fought against racial segregation and devoted her life to helping people in need.

  • Frances Willard worked on behalf of women and children for increased rights and education. She strongly favored women’s suffrage and prohibition.


Reforming the workplace

Reforming the Workplace

  • In 1910 almost half of all working women made less than $6 a week and most children who worked had never been to school.

  • Progressives sought to enact labor laws to limit the number of hours and the types of jobs that women and children could work.

  • By 1912, 39 states had some form of Child Labor laws but a minimum wage for workers would not come until 1938.


Tragedy leads to reform

Tragedy leads to reform

In the early 1900’s the Supreme court favored the rights of businesses over those of the workers, claiming workers always had the right to quit a job if conditions were bad

In 1911, 140 New York City factory workers were killed in a fire. The Triangle T-shirt factory lacked fire exits and outrage over the deaths lead lawmakers to pass protective legislation.

State began to enact “Social Legislation” which were laws designed to protect the health and safety of workers (particularly women and children).


Labor unions

Labor Unions

  • Labor unions continued to fight along with Progressives for labor reforms.

  • Between 1900 and 1914 the American Federation of Labor grew by four times but still excluded unskilled and black workers.

  • In 1900 the International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union organized the mostly immigrant women workers in sewing shops.

  • Some industries wanted to have closed shops where workers were required to join unions


Cleaning up the cities

Cleaning up the Cities

Reformers also took on the campaign to clean up American cities, literally.

Various women’s clubs worked with government officials to improve sanitation.

Lawrence Veiller called on irresponsible tenement owners to improve living conditions

In 1901 the New York State Tenement House Act required new tenements have one bathroom for every three rooms and open courtyards to allow in light and air.


Other urban improvements

Other Urban Improvements

  • The National Tuberculosis Association focused on education and special hospitals for the victims of tuberculosis and were successful in significantly dropping the death rate.

  • In 1908 Massachusetts passed a law requiring cities with more than 10,000 people to build at least one playground for children.

  • By 1920 cities all over America were spending millions on playgrounds and sports fields.


City planning

City Planning

  • In 1909 The First National Conference on City Planning was held and participants argued that clean cities with impressive architecture would improve civic pride.

  • City governments began to more strictly enforce building codes, sanitation standards and zoning laws.

  • Architect produced plans for redesigning cities with public buildings that would inspire people to be good citizens.


Prohibition

Prohibition

  • Progressives also looked to morally reform American society and most saw alcohol as a main contributor to many social problems.

  • The Anti-Saloon League and the (WCTU) Woman’s Christian Temperance Union led the crusade against the manufacture and sale of alcohol.

  • Many colleges disallowed student athletes to drink and the U.S. Navy banned alcohol for soldiers fighting in WWI.

  • In 1919 Congress passed the 18th Amendment banning the use or sale of alcohol


W e b dubois

W.E.B. DuBois

Du Bois was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University.

By the early 1900’s Du Bois was a strong supporter of civil rights and believed that access to college was a key to black progress

Du Bois differed from Booker T. Washington by encouraging African Americans to be politically active in the fight for equality.

Du Bois would later embrace socialism for its promise of social justice for all people.


African americans organize

African Americans Organize

  • In 1909 a group of African American and white progressives met to discuss the lynching of two African American men, from this meeting came the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People or NAACP.

  • The NAACP published a magazine The Crisis which sold over 100,000 copies in 1918

  • The NAACP provided money and lawyers for cases involving civil rights and was able to overturn the use of the grandfather clause .


Assimilating immigrants

Assimilating Immigrants

Not all progressives agreed on the role of immigrants in American society, some sympathized with them while others rejected them for supporting political machines.

Most progressives supported the Americanization of immigrants, teaching them English and American customs.

Some states passed Americanization measures that pushed immigrants to study English, US History and Government in public schools.


Government corruption and a call for reform

Government Corruption and a Call for Reform

  • By the mid 1900’s government corruption had spread all the way to the US Congress.

  • Reformers seeking a more honest government rallied to the slogan, “Give the government back to the people!”

  • Many states began to use secret ballots, held primary elections, and allowed citizens to add legislation to the ballot.

  • Robert LaFollette favored the breakup of corporate monopolies and trusts, public control of the nation's resources, farm relief, and reduced income taxes.


Reforming city government

Reforming City Government

  • As progressives and muckrakers continued to uncover corruption in city governments, some reformers began to run for city mayor.

  • These “good-government” campaigns appealed to voters fed up with scandal and leaders like Samuel “Golden Rule” Jones began to reform cities.

  • In 1900 after a devastating hurricane, Galveston, turned their city government over to a group of experts; this city commission system soon caught on in many US cities


Voting reforms

VOTING REFORMS

  • Initiative is the process by which special interest groups, through voter participation, propose bills to their legislature for a vote. In this way, voters can force lawmakers to deal with difficult issues. 

  • Referendum is the process by which voters approve bills offered by the legislature. Controversial bills such as tax increases can thus be put to a public vote before becoming law. 

  • Through the process of recall, voters hold the power to remove a public official from office before the next scheduled election. 


The progressive movement

Public initiative can place controversial issues such as Assisted Suicide on the ballot.

Video of New State of Washington Referendum on the same law

News Report on the Oregon Law.


Roosevelt becomes president

Roosevelt Becomes President

As governor of New York, Theodore Roosevelt worked to reform government and business.

In 1900, Roosevelt was elected vice-president under McKinley, who was assassinated in 1901

Roosevelt took office and took a hands on approach to reforming the United States.

Roosevelt successfully intervened in a coal miners strike in 1902, appointing arbitrators to bring compromise between the two sides; this “Square Deal” became his campaign slogan.


Roosevelt regulates business

Roosevelt Regulates Business

  • Roosevelt considered big business essential to the nations growth but he wanted business to “serve the public good”

  • In 1904 Roosevelt’s administration filed 44 suits against trusts that were forcing companies to give discounts, selling inferior products or competing unfairly

  • In 1903 the Elkins Act forbade shipping companies from taking rebates, and in 1906 the Hepburn Act authorized the ICC to set railroad and ferry rates.


The progressive movement

In November 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt was on a hunting trip to Mississippi. After hours of searching, Roosevelt and his group had not come across any wild animals. Finally, the group did track down and surrounded a helpless bear. One of the guides asked the president to shoot the bear so he could win a hunting trophy. The president refused, and news reporters throughout the country spread the story of Roosevelt's kind act.

Not long after this took place, a famous cartoonist named Clifford Berryman drew a cartoon based on Roosevelt 's rescue of the bear. When a store owner in Brooklyn saw the cartoon, he decided to make toy bears to sell in his shop. He asked president Roosevelt for permission to use the name “"Teddy's Bear"” for his toys, as a reminder of the bear Roosevelt had set free. Nowadays, everyone knows these toys as Teddy Bears, but few people know that they were named after President Theodore “"Teddy"” Roosevelt.


Protecting consumer and environment

Protecting Consumer and Environment

  • In his book The Jungle , Upton Sinclair exposed unsanitary and unsafe practices in American meat packing and food processing plants.

  • In 1906 Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act designed to inspect and regulate food and drugs.

  • Roosevelt set aside nearly 150 million acres as forest reserves and created the National Park Service to protect parks and monuments.

  • In 1872 Congress approved Yellowstone as the first area of national distinction.


Taft takes office

Taft Takes Office

  • In the 1908 election President Roosevelt threw his support behind his secretary of War William Howard Taft.

  • Taft continued the work of Roosevelt by filing 90 new antitrust lawsuits and extending the ICC’s power to include regulation of telephone and telegraph companies.

  • Taft was also partly responsible for the 16th Amendment, known as a graduated income tax

  • Dollar Diplomacy was a policy adopted by President Howard Taft to encourage investment by American banks and businesses in Latin America and the Far East. As part of the policy he promised military protection to those who invested abroad.


Taft angers the progressives

Taft Angers the Progressives

Despite his reforms Taft lost favor with progressive leaders starting in 1909.

Taft passed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff which raised prices on imported goods and in turn raised prices on all goods in America.

Progressives argued that high tariffs hurt theAmerican consumer, raising prices on goods.

Taft also supported the sale of federal lands in coal-rich Alaska. Progressives saw the sale as hurting the environment.


Election of 1912

Election of 1912

  • Frustrated with Taft’s political mistakes, Theodore Roosevelt returned to politics and ran against Taft for the Republican nomination

  • Although Roosevelt won almost every state, Taft supporters refused to allow Roosevelt’s delegates at the Republican convention and Taft received the party nomination.

  • Roosevelt countered by running under the Progressive party, but with Republican votes split, a Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected


Reforms of woodrow wilson

Reforms of Woodrow Wilson

  • Wilson’s first act as President was to lower tariffs lowing prices and helping poor Americans

  • Wilson created the Federal Reserve in 1913 which created a board in charge of setting interest rates and a central fund which banks could borrow from.

  • Wilson took on businesses with the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914, stopping businesses from selling below cost to drive out competition or buying stock of a competitor and legalizing strikes and protests.


Struggle for women s suffrage

Struggle for Women’s Suffrage

  • Many organizations opposed women’s suffrage, the liquor industry thought women would press for prohibition and business knew women would push for labor reform.

  • In 1914 Alice Paul started a second suffrage organization the National Women’s Party.

  • Paul lead suffragist in round the clock protest outside the White House in 1917.

  • Paul and NAWSA leader Carrie Chapman Catt continued their struggle until in 1920 the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote

  • Susan B. Anthony was a leading force in the women's suffrage movement for 50 years. Susan’s image has been placed on a coin (SBA Dollar) to recognize her efforts.


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