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Tackling Hard-to-treat homes. Heat pumps, solid wall insulation and non-traditional construction. Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes. Three research exercises commissioned by the Hard-to-treat homes sub-group: Solid Wall Insulation: Impetus, 2004 Heat Pumps: People for Places, 2005

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Tackling hard to treat homes

Tackling Hard-to-treat homes

Heat pumps, solid wall insulation and non-traditional construction


Energy efficiency partnership for homes
Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes

Three research exercises commissioned by the Hard-to-treat homes sub-group:

  • Solid Wall Insulation: Impetus, 2004

  • Heat Pumps: People for Places, 2005

  • Non-traditional construction: CSE, 2005


Fuel poverty and non traditional construction

Fuel poverty and non-traditional construction

Ian Preston, CSE

Dr Richard Moore


Background
Background

  • ~1 million non-traditional properties in UK

  • Majority built between 1945 the and early 1970s

  • Over 500 systems built between 1919 and 1976

  • Termed system-built or pre-fabricated

  • Four broad categories, by wall construction

  • Thermal efficiency varies significantly

  • In practice, the majority of investment was designed to overcome defects


Aims of study
Aims of study

  • Investigate how many non-traditionally constructed homes still exist in the UK

  • Identify the risk of fuel poverty within them

  • Identify examples of best practice and potential case study areas


Methodology
Methodology

  • Produce estimates of SAP and fuel poverty from all four national HCSfor 80 proprietary systems

  • Analysis by nation, sub-category, and where possible proprietary system

  • Results for Scotland and Wales are limited by the design and in the case of Wales by the quality of their HCS


Methodology cont
Methodology (cont.)

  • Estimates of NTH for each local authority

  • Compilation of database from a range of sources

  • Identified 52 authorities with high levels of NTH

  • Contacted the management body to establish works undertaken, and the associated changes in SAP or risk of FP


Sample results
Sample results

Wall

construction

in England


Non masonry homes x1000
Non-masonry homes(x1000)



La survey
LA survey

  • 19 out of 52 authorities contacted responded

  • 18 respondents (95%) provided numbers of non-traditional houses (LA or LSVT)

  • 14 supplied details of the improvements made

  • 11 provided indicative figures for average work costs

  • Only 6 had estimates for changes in SAP ratings,

  • None commented on the effects of improvements on fuel poverty


La survey1
LA Survey

  • Significant levels of improvement works have been carried out on all non-traditional stock

  • Typical measures include; EWI or replacement brick cavity walls, LI, central heating and new kitchens and bathrooms

  • Majority of investment between 1980s and 90s, but there is a significant amount of ongoing maintenance and improvement

  • Estimated cost of works varies significantly, i.e. from £3,000 to £80,000


La survey2
LA survey

  • Cost of improvements and the value of property is a factor in an authority’s decision to improve them i.e. Rugby Borough Council

  • A comprehensive package of measures is required to a target SAP rating of 65 or above

  • An average cost of £10,000 provides a good indication of expenditure required per property*

  • Costs can be significantly higher when structural work is required to improve or replace walls


Study of heat pumps for hard to treat homes

Study of heat pumps for Hard-to-treat homes

Nicholas Doyle, Places for people

Alan Pither


Aims

  • Report on application of heat pumps to hard-to-treat homes

  • Guidance to local authorities, architects and developers


Outputs
Outputs

  • Main heat pump technologies

  • Commercial providers

  • Applicability of the technology

  • Case studies

  • Application matrix

  • Initial guidance


Methodology1
Methodology

  • Literature review

  • Database

  • Interviews with key people

    • Questionnaire 1: Companies

    • Questionnaire 2: Utilities

    • Questionnaire 3: Users


Database
Database

  • UK Heat Pump Network

  • Heat Pump Association

  • Ground Source Heat Pump Club

  • Clear Skies

  • Now most up to date Dbase


Key interviews
Key interviews

  • Heat Pump Association

  • Manufacturers, Installers and Suppliers

  • Energy Companies

  • Landlords

  • Ground Source Heat Pump Club


Findings
Findings

  • Supplier and installer

  • Member of HPN

  • Majority of Technology is G2W plus W2W

  • Operates throughout UK and occasionally outside

  • Market split evenly between HA, LA and individual householders

  • Majority of work in newbuild

  • Definitely doesn’t believe that HP can be used in HTT - one exception


Findings1
Findings

  • Cautious

  • Overloaded with research

  • Industry changing fast

  • A tipping point?


Utilities survey
Utilities survey

  • All EEC managers called

  • Only 2 responses

  • Cautious – commercially sensitive

  • Special tariffs not perceived as necessary

  • Funding under EEC 2?


Residents survey
Residents’ survey

  • Prize Draw

  • Technology ‘Blind’

  • Perception of heating and hot water

  • Penwith HA, Westlea HA, SCHRI

  • Not Clear Skies


Residents survey1
Residents’ survey

  • Majority had positive views with notable exceptions

  • Controls understood

    • Split between those who thought they were clear and those who thought ‘could be clearer’

  • Costs

    • Limited time with systems

    • Average per week - £13 but ranged from £9 -£20

    • Majority thought very reasonable or affordable


Types of heat pump
Types of heat pump

  • Ground to water

  • Ground to air

  • Water to water

  • Water to air

  • Air to water

  • Air to air



Types of system
Types of system

  • Ground (or water) source heat pump systems using closed loop water source heat pumps.

  • Ground (or water) source heat pump systems using open loop water source heat pumps.

  • Ground source heat pump systems using DX heat pumps.

  • Air source heat pump systems


Case studies
Case studies

1 Penwith Housing Association, Ludgvan

2 Westlea Housing Association, Withy Close

3 Fife Special Housing Association, Ochil View,

4 Shettleston Housing Association, Glenalmond Street, Shettleston

5 Geothermal Heating and Cooling, Burton On Trent

6 Geothermal Heating and Cooling, Kidderminster

7 West Lothian Council


Key lessons
Key lessons

  • Costs dependent on local geological/site conditions

    • Ground water levels

    • Need for lining of boreholes

  • Bore both supply and return boreholes at the same time and an early stage in the project to monitor flows

  • Lack of a user manual


Key lessons1
Key lessons

  • Need to explain to occupants that their radiators will not be hot to touch

  • Correct programming and setting of heat pump temperatures to ensure efficient running of the system is vital

  • Ensure that the best electricity tariff is used

  • Need to train maintenance contractors


The solution for hard to treat homes
The solution for hard-to-treat homes?

  • High specific heat loss (> 100 W/m2) so require relatively large heating systems.

  • If the CoP is >3, they will provide cheaper fuel running costs than any other type of heating system (at current tariff levels).

  • The issue is whether the capital cost is cost-effective compared to the alternatives:

    • The capital cost of ground source heat pump systems is relatively proportional to the output required.


The solution
The solution?

  • Running costs of heat pumps may be lower but not low enough for as an alternative to improved insulation.

  • Low maintenance costs: £120-£250 per year saving (compared with gas systems?)


Factors
Factors

  • Access to mains gas.

  • Whether the property can be reasonably well insulated using cost effective insulation measures such as cavity wall insulation and loft insulation.

  • Whether the property is to be comprehensively refurbished, including internal or external wall insulation and floor replacement.


Factors1
Factors

  • The existing heating system in the property.

  • Sufficient space for the installation and adequate means of access for the installation equipment.

  • Other local factors that could affect the cost, e.g. ground water levels, the capacity of the local electricity network.



Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Newbuild is the natural market

  • A significant industry is developing

  • Existing housing will require individual assessment

  • Not an alternative to insulation for HTT, but complementary to it


Conclusions suitability
Conclusions - suitability?

  • Ground source heat pumps for insulated houses off mains gas

  • Air source heat pumps for high rise/mid rise flats

  • Combination with small-scale renewables, e.g. wind/PV, but even higher capital costs


Insulating solid walls a challenge for local authorities and housing associations

Insulating solid walls: a challenge for local authorities and housing associations

Dave Barton, Impetus

Alastair Brooks, Impetus


Solid wall insulation research
Solid wall insulation research and housing associations

Aims:

  • To produce impartial, practical and user-friendly reports

  • To help policy community, local authorities and housing associations


Objectives
Objectives and housing associations

To investigate:

  • experience of specifying, installation and ‘usage’;

  • range of costs and

  • perceived performance of the technology.


Cost effectiveness
Cost-effectiveness and housing associations


Why solid wall insulation
Why solid wall insulation? and housing associations

  • More cost-effective than some measures currently promoted

  • Significant energy savings

  • A body of experience in social housing

  • Sound technical guidance

  • Need to disseminate existing practice and instil confidence


Methodology2
Methodology and housing associations

  • Desktop research

  • Telephone interviews with key players

  • Focus group of experience in:

    • social housing and

    • promoting to the private sector

  • Identify case studies

  • Householders’ feedback


General findings
General findings and housing associations

  • Building improvement measure, not purely thermal improvements, particularly for EWI

  • Opportunity measure, needs long-term planning: not simple retrofit

  • Considerable associated costs and disruption

  • Technical detailing and quality installations are essential


Comparison of iwi and ewi
Comparison of IWI and EWI and housing associations

  • More experience on EWI

  • EWI adds value

  • EWI extends building life

  • EWI better able to deal with cold bridging

  • EWI: systems approach, installers and warranty

  • Overall comparison table in report


Costs
Costs and housing associations

  • Variable dependent upon building type, numbers etc

  • £2000 for IWI is not unusual

  • Typically EWI £5000 to £10000 for EWI

  • Up to £25,000 for a new brick skin and cavity wall


Findings social housing
Findings: social housing and housing associations

  • Generally good feedback from tenants on EWI

  • Issues with mixed tenure on blocks

  • Integrate EWI with glazing programme

  • IWI dependent upon skilled builders

  • Some concern about robustness of dry-lining in social housing

  • No detailed research found on householders feedback


Findings private sector
Findings:private sector and housing associations

  • A few small-scale schemes

  • Limited take-up

  • Grants of £1000 to £3000, some interest free loans

  • Usually marketed with other measures


Social housing exemplars
Social housing exemplars and housing associations

  • Mid-Suffolk District council: post-1919 terrace improvements

  • London Borough of Enfield: improvements to high-rise blocks

  • Sandwell Borough Council: an example of a new brick skin and cavity wall

  • Sheffield City Council: non-traditional low-rise housing


Private housing scheme exemplars
Private housing scheme exemplars and housing associations

  • Leicester City Council: Realise

  • The Oxford Solar Initiative

  • Stroud District Council’s Energy Efficiency Grants

  • Wyre Borough Council: Wyred for Energy


Publications
Publications and housing associations

Energy Efficiency Partnership for homes www.est.org.uk/partnership/

  • Hard-to-treat homes: a guide for local authorities

  • Investigation of local authority activities w.r.t. HTTH

  • Installing solid wall insulation: a challenge for local authorities and housing associations

  • Installing solid wall insulation: a challenge for policy makers and scheme managers

  • A guide to using heat pumps

  • Heat pump study report

  • Fuel poverty and non-traditional constructions


Thank you
Thank you! and housing associations


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