Modulating fatty acid metabolism to enhance hatchability of chicken eggs
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Modulating Fatty Acid Metabolism to Enhance Hatchability of Chicken Eggs. Travis Schaal Dr. Gita Cherian Department of Animal Sciences. Background. Chicken egg incubation lasts 21 days 12 billion broiler and turkey eggs incubated commercially in US annually

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Modulating fatty acid metabolism to enhance hatchability of chicken eggs

Modulating Fatty Acid Metabolism to Enhance Hatchability of Chicken Eggs

Travis Schaal

Dr. Gita Cherian

Department of Animal Sciences


Background
Background Chicken Eggs

  • Chicken egg incubation lasts 21 days

  • 12 billion broiler and turkey eggs incubated commercially in US annually

  • 20% of eggs incubated do not hatch

USDA Image Number:95CS1974


Background1
Background Chicken Eggs

Schaal and Cherian, 2005

Hatchability resulted in 500 million dollar loss to the US poultry industry in 2005


Background2
Background Chicken Eggs

  • Embryos are dependent upon nutrients stored in the egg for sustaining growth and development

  • An average chicken egg contains 5.5 to 6 g of fat (yolk)

  • Lipid-rich yolk is the only source of fatty acids available to the developing embryo.

USDA Image Number:95cs1973


Background3
Background Chicken Eggs

  • During incubation, over 80% of yolk fatty acids (FA) are absorbed by the developing chick embryo.

  • In addition, FA are the major fuel and provides over 70 percent of the energy requirements for chick’s heart.

USDA Image Number: 97cs0748


Hatching a stressful act
Hatching A Stressful Act Chicken Eggs

  • Hatching is characterized by:

    The internal pipping by the beak, accompanied by a gradual shift from yolk sac-based respiration to pulmonary respiration


Purpose
Purpose Chicken Eggs

To determine the effect of exogenous supply of fatty acids on chicken embryo health and hatchability.


Hypothesis
Hypothesis Chicken Eggs

Embryos having an exogenous supply of fatty acids will produce more energy during the stressful process of hatching and will have a higher hatchability rate


Methods in ovo injection
Methods - In Ovo Injection Chicken Eggs

  • Two trials conducted

    • Practice technique

  • Trial 1

    • A total of 72 eggs were injected in-ovo with fatty acids (0.2 ml) or saline at day 14 of incubation with trans fat, no trans fat, or saline.


Methods trial 2
Methods - Trial 2 Chicken Eggs

  • A total of 135 eggs were incubated, 90 eggs were injected in-ovo with fatty acids (Palmitate, 0.2 ml) or carrier at day 15 of incubation.


Methods
Methods Chicken Eggs

  • Eggs set in same tray in the same incubator.

  • Incubation conditions:

    37.5°C dry and 28.3°C wet bulb until hatching when the dry bulb temperature will be reduced to 36.3°C and the wet bulb temperature will be increased to 30.2°C.


Injection methods
Injection Methods Chicken Eggs


Methods1
Methods Chicken Eggs

  • Hatched chicks were counted.

  • Non-hatched eggs were broken open to determine the embryo status (infertile, early or late dead).


Methods2
Methods Chicken Eggs

  • Hatched chicks were sacrificed and tissues/blood collected for FA assays.

    • Heart = oxidation

    • Liver = synthesis

    • Brain = tissue with high levels FA

    • Yolk sac = reservoir


Results trial 1
Results – Trial 1 Chicken Eggs

  • Hatchability

    • Saline = 80%

    • Trans fats = 29.6%

    • No trans fats = 45%

  • Tissue and blood FA assays pending


Results
Results Chicken Eggs

Under Construction


Results trial 2
Results – Trial 2 Chicken Eggs

  • Hatchability Trial 2

    • Palmitate = 64%

    • Carrier = 54%

    • No injection = 81%

  • Tissue and blood FA assays pending


Results trial 21
Results – Trial 2 Chicken Eggs

Effect of injection on hatched chick weight


Results - Trial 2 Chicken Eggs

Effect of injection on hatched chick heart weight


Results – Trial 2 Chicken Eggs

Effect of injection on hatched chick yolk sac weight


Results – Trial 2 Chicken Eggs

Effect of injection on hatched chick liver weight


Conclusions
Conclusions Chicken Eggs

  • Trial 1

    • Optimization of in-ovo injection techniques

    • In-ovo injection did not affect hatchability

    • Trans fat reduced hatchability

  • Trial 2

    • Palmitate chick higher body weight (BW)

    • Injected chicks higher heart weight (% BW)

    • Injected chicks higher yolk sac weight (% BW)

    • No effect on liver weight (% BW)


So what
So What? Chicken Eggs

  • Poultry Production

    • Hatchability, Body weight

  • Animal Models

    • Chick embryo could be used as a model to study fatty acid metabolism during early growth in humans

    • Link discovered between fatty acid metabolism sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements Chicken Eggs

  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute

  • Dr. Gita Cherian

  • Dr. Kevin Ahern

  • Mare Goeger


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