Astro 1 – Sections 2 and 4
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Astro 1 – Sections 2 and 4 The Astronomical Universe . Professor: Robin Ciardullo Office: 519 Davey Lab Office Hours: TTh 4:00 - 5:30 e-mail: [email protected] Phone: 865-6601 Text: Astronomy - A Beginner’s Guide, by Chaisson & McMillan

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Astro 1 – Sections 2 and 4 The Astronomical Universe

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Astro 1 sections 2 and 4 the astronomical universe

Astro 1 – Sections 2 and 4

The Astronomical Universe

Professor: RobinCiardullo

Office: 519 Davey Lab

Office Hours:TTh 4:00 - 5:30e-mail: [email protected]

Phone:865-6601Text: Astronomy - A Beginner’s Guide,by Chaisson & McMillan

Class Web Site: http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/rbc/astro1.html

Grades Policy:50% midterms

25% final

25% homework and clickers


Keys to success

Keys to Success

  • Attend class, and ask questions!

  • Skim the material before the lectures, and review the notes afterward. All the notes and the class slides will be posted on the web a day or two before the lecture.

  • Visit the web site regularly. Annoucements, hints, and extra bonus features will be posted there (without necessarily being mentioned in class).

  • Don’t concentrate on facts. Instead, consider the class as an exercise in learning the process of scientific thinking.

  • Learn from the tests and the homework. The questions you miss may appear later on!


Homework

Homework

  • (Almost) weekly set of five difficult questions, posted on-line. The answers will (usually) be due by midnight Monday

  • Work together!!! Ponder, discuss, and argue!

  • You may submit the homework multiple times. Only the last submission will count.

  • Submit the homework on time! No submission means negative points!

You don’t have to get all the answers correct. If you’re getting ~ 70% right, you’re doing “A” work!


Observing project

Observing Project

  • Observe the sunset (beginning and end of semester)

  • Observe the Moon (one time)

  • Observe planets, stars and constellations (one time)

  • Observe through a telescope

    • Telescopes are open on the roof of Davey Lab (M-Th)

    • Telescopes are open to everyone until September 25

    • After Sept 25, you can only observe during certain dates (determined by the first initial of your last name)

Assistance for observing is available on the roof of Davey Lab Monday through Thursday (starting next week). In addition, the Astronomy Dep’t and the Penn State Astronomy Club sponsor a telescope open house every (clear) Friday.

Detailed information is available on the class web-site


Ta help

TA Help

  • Teaching Assistants will be available Monday through Thursday in 445 Davey Lab to help with questions, homework, or test preparation. Their hours are

    • Monday 1:00 - 6:00 p.m.

    • Tuesday 1:00 - 6:00 p.m.

    • Wednesday 1:00 - 3:30 p.m.

    • Thursday 1:00 - 6:00 p.m.

    • Friday 1:00 - 3:30 p.m.


The clickers

The “Clickers”

  • To use (first time):

    • Turn the PRS unit on

    • When you see “Scanning classes”, push *

    • Push the up arrow key

You need a Personal Response System (PRS) radio clicker for this class. (That way, I can keep track of attendance.)

  • Enter your PSU e-mail ID by hitting a letter key, then using the up at down arrows to scroll to the first letter of your e-mail address. Repeat for the remaining letters (and numbers). After the e-mail ID is entered, press the green (enter) button.

Next time you turn on the clicker, it will remember your ID!!!

[Note: you should turn your clicker off when not in use so the battery doesn’t run down.]


The astronomy diagnostic test adt

The Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT)

Outside bureaucrats want everyone to fill out a brief (40 minute!) online questionnaire through Angel. This survey won’t be graded, but participation will count towards your homework grade. Since the purpose of this ADT is to find out how much astronomy you know before taking the course, you should not study for this. Just answer the questions the best you can.

The link will disappear on Monday.


Structure of course

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

Visual and Historical Astronomy


History of astronomy

HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY


Structure of course1

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

Visual and Historical Astronomy

Gravity


Gravity

GRAVITY


Structure of course2

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

Gravity

Light


Light

LIGHT


Structure of course3

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

Stars

Gravity

Light


Stars

STARS


Structure of course4

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

The Milky Way

Stars

Gravity

Light


The milky way

THE MILKY WAY


Structure of course5

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

The Milky Way

Galaxies

Stars

Gravity

Light


Galaxies

GALAXIES


Structure of course6

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

The Universe

Galaxies

Stars

Gravity

Light


The universe

THE UNIVERSE


Structure of course7

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

The Solar System

The Universe

Galaxies

Stars

Gravity

Light


The solar system

THE SOLAR SYSTEM


Structure of course8

STRUCTURE OF COURSE

The Solar System

Life, the Universe and Us

The Universe

Galaxies

Stars

Gravity

Light


Life in the universe

LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE


Astro 1 sections 2 and 4 the astronomical universe

The Sky and the

Motions of the Earth


The celestial sphere

The Celestial Sphere

  • Geocentrially speaking, the Earth sits inside a celestial sphere. Fixed on the sphere are stars.


Constellations

Constellations

  • Constellations are patterns of stars that the eye picks out. The stars are usually not near each other; they just lie in the same direction.

  • Historically, the brightest stars are stars of the 1stmagnitude. The next brightest are stars of the 2nd magnitude. The faintest stars one can see by eye are 6th magnitude. (The biggest telescopes can reach m = 26 or so.)


Astro 1 sections 2 and 4 the astronomical universe

Orion, the Hunter

Scorpius, the Scorpion

Leo, the Lion

Cygnus, the Swan

Antlia, the Air Pump

Puppis, the Poop Deck


Astro 1 sections 2 and 4 the astronomical universe

Constellations


Diurnal motion

Diurnal Motion

  • The Earth’s axis of rotation also defines some places on the celestial sphere.

  • Thecelestial North poleis over the Earth’s north pole.

  • Thecelestial equatoris the extension of the Earth’s equator.

  • Themeridiandivides east from west on the sky.


Diurnal motion1

Diurnal Motion

  • Each day, the Earth rotates once (west-to-east) on its axis. This causes us to face different directions and see different stars. The stars’ daily (diurnal) motion reflects the Earth’s spin.


Risings and settings

Risings and Settings

The spin of the Earth causes the stars to appear to rotate about the celestial pole. Some stars are circumpolar and never set, while others dip below the horizon. Which stars are which depends on where you are on Earth.

The 2nd magnitude star Polaris happens to be very near the North celestial pole.


The yearly motion

The Yearly Motion

In addition to rotating, the Earth alsorevolvesabout the Sun.

As the Earth revolves the Sun is projected in front of different constellations at different times of year. The path the Sun takes across heavens is called the ecliptic.The constellations which the Sun passes through arezodiac constellations.

Because the Sun is bright, we can only see some constellations at certain times of year.


The seasons

The Seasons

Since the plane of the ecliptic is tilted 23.5° with respect to the celestial equator, we have seasons.


The motion of the sun

The Motion of the Sun

From the Geocentric point of view, the Sun moves from the northern part to the southern part of the sky with the seasons.

When the Sun is furthest north (south), it’s the summer (winter)solstice. When the Sun crosses the celestial equator, it’s thevernal(orautumnal) equinox.


Next time sun earth and moon

Next Time -- Sun, Earth and Moon


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