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Vocabulary Review. Homeostasis and Cell Transport. The movement of substances across a cell membrane without any input of energy. Passive Transport. The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion.

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Vocabulary Review

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Vocabulary Review

Homeostasis and

Cell Transport


The movement of substances across a cell membrane without any input of energy

Passive Transport


The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

Diffusion


The difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance

Concentration gradient


Concentration of molecules is the same throughout the space the molecules occupy

Equilibrium


Movement of water molecules from high concentration to low concentration

Osmosis


Concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is LOWER than in the cytosol; water diffuses into the cell

Hypotonic


Concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is HIGHER than in the cytosol; water diffuses out of the cell

Hypertonic


Concentrations of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal

Isotonic


Organelles that remove water through contraction

Contractile Vacuoles


The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall

Turgor pressure


The shrinking of a cell due to water’s moving out the cell when placed in a hypertonic environment

Plasmolysis


The swelling and eventual bursting of a cell as water moves into it when placed in a hypotonic environment

Cytolysis


The movement of substances across a cell membrane with the assistance of protein carriers

Facilitated Diffusion


The proteins that move certain molecules into the cell that cannot readily diffuse through the cell membrane

Carrier Proteins


A complex of protein molecules in a cell membrane that form a pore through which ions can pass

Ion Channels


The movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires energy

Active Transport


A carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell

Sodium-Potassium Pump


The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell

Endocytosis


Small cavity or sac that contains materials; forms when part of the membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into or out of the cell

Vesicle


A method of active transport across the cell membrane in which the cell takes in extracellular fluids

Pinocytosis


The process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food

Phagocytosis


A cell that ingests and destroys (digests) foreign matter or microorganisms

Phagocyte


The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out

Exocytosis


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