South Africa: Preliminary findings and draft recommendations
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South Africa: Preliminary findings and draft recommendations “Towards more effective responses to organised crime in Southern Africa” (EROC project) ISS Pretoria, 21st April 2010. Presentation outline. Fieldwork coverage and data collection methods Research challenges Preliminary findings

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South africa preliminary findings and draft recommendations

South Africa: Preliminary findings and draft recommendations

“Towards more effective responses to organised crime in Southern Africa”

(EROC project)

ISS Pretoria, 21st April 2010


Presentation outline

Presentation outline

  • Fieldwork coverage and data collection methods

  • Research challenges

  • Preliminary findings

  • Draft recommendations

  • Discussion


Fieldwork coverage and data collection

Fieldwork coverage and data collection

  • Scoping exercises in 2008

  • Restricted to Gauteng and Western Cape during 2009.

  • Inclusion of KZN and Limpopo province in 2010. Additional research in Gauteng and Western Cape.

  • Data collection involved interviews with government sources, NGOs, observations and analysis of secondary sources of information.


Research challenges

Research challenges

  • Scope of the research

  • Time limitations

  • Absence of a definition of OC/confusion of some terms (e.g. human trafficking and people smuggling)

  • Access to information

  • Ethical debates


Findings drug trafficking

Findings: Drug trafficking

  • Cannabis

  • Tik

  • Cocaine

  • Heroin

  • Khat

  • Ecstasy

  • Hallucinogens

  • Mandrax decreasing.


Drug trafficking methods

Drug trafficking methods

  • By air – collusion with airport staff, concealing drugs in hidden compartments, cargo, drug mules, courier companies

  • By sea – limited evidence a result of difficulty in searching containers or because most drugs smuggled by air as it is quicker?


Human trafficking

Human trafficking

  • A lack of data on human trafficking.

  • Absence of legislation.

  • Confusion with the terms ‘human trafficking’ and ‘people smuggling.’

  • Conflation of figures by self-interested parties.

  • Evidence of trafficking.

  • Many more cases of people smuggling which lead to exploitation.


Poaching of endangered species

Poaching of endangered species

  • Last year limited to rhino horn and abalone; inclusion of further species in 2010.

  • Rhino horn used in traditional medicine in Far East.

  • Syndicates involving: Mozambicans, Vietnamese, renegade Professional Hunters

  • Moratorium debate

  • Databases

  • TOPS legislation

  • Private/public sector liaison

  • Security companies


Poaching of endangered species1

Poaching of endangered species

  • Exchange of abalone for drugs

  • Use of local fishermen, diving at night

  • Transportation to Gauteng

  • Export to Asia

  • Discordant criminal laws, penalties.


Illicit trade in cigarettes

Illicit trade in cigarettes

  • Highly profitable.

  • Varying views of the extent.

  • Different types of illicit cigarettes.

  • Debate over whether tax differentials cause smuggling.

  • Zimbabwe/Mozambique


Issues

Issues

  • Cross-border cooperation – sharing of intelligence, varying legislation, porous borders, extradition

  • Better cooperation between organisations/departments, particularly at Ports of Entry

  • Databases

  • Capacity, resources and training

  • Improved standards within security companies

  • Nexus between business and crime

  • Corruption

  • Establishment of border management agency (BMI)


Thank you amandalucey @gmail com www issafrica org

Thank you!

[email protected]

: www.issafrica.org


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